Libmonster ID: KZ-2439

In the 1930s and 1950s, the trade and economic rivalry between Russia and Britain in Iran sharply worsened. Meanwhile, the increased volume of British and Russian exports to the Middle East markets has not been able to undermine Iran's traditional trade ties with neighboring nations. Time and new circumstances made their own adjustments to this relationship.

For many centuries, there has been a mutually beneficial trade between Iranians and Turkmens. In the 1930s and 1950s, the main items of Turkmen exports to the northeastern regions of Iran were oil and salt. Despite the fact that Turkmen oil was significantly lower in quality than Baku oil, Iran still preferred the first one because of its cheapness. The second reason for the steady demand for this oil was that Turkmens more often exchanged it for Iranian grain, in contrast to Russian citizens who traded Baku oil for cash. Every year, up to 10 vessels with Turkmen oil and 18 vessels with salt arrived in Gilan. At the same time, oil and salt were imported by Gilan traders, since the Turkmens did not have large ships [AVPRI, II-3, 1831, op. 34, d.8, l. 98]. Up to 60 thousand poods of Turkmen oil were imported to Mazandaran at a price of 25-30 kopecks. for pud [AVPRI, II-3, 1831, op. 34, d. 9, l. 168 vol.].

Turkmens brought fish and caviar from the Gulf of Astrabad to the northern regions of Iran. As noted by the famous Russian economist Yu. A. Gagemeister, " Turkmens... they are constantly destroying the gear of Russian fishermen and forcing them to buy fish and caviar from them. They themselves beat sturgeons with harpoons with great skill, and when the Russians supply them with gear, they catch fish for them" [AVPRI, II-10, 1836-1844, d. 3, l. 66 vol.]. In addition to oil, salt and fish, coarse horse felt was imported to Iran from Turkmenistan.

Relations between Iran and Turkmenistan have historically been very difficult. As the Russian consul in Astrabad, court adviser M. I. Chernyaev, noted, " Astrabad is in frequent relations with the Turkmen steppe, which, however, are very rarely commercial. Turkmens prefer plunder and capture of prisoners to trade activities, which bring significant profits" [AVPRI, I-9, 1847-1854, op. 8, d. 11, l. 303 vol.]. The neighboring Astrabad region was often raided and robbed by Turkmens. Taking the Astrabad people captive, the Turkmens demanded a ransom from their relatives, and they, according to the consul, "were forced to spend significant amounts of money... "[AVPRI, I-9, 1847-1854, op. 8, d. 11, l. 297 vol.]. In addition, the Turkmens sometimes robbed trade caravans traveling from the Astrabad region to Khorasan. These robberies were especially frequent on the Barkuliagh Road, the busiest trade route in northeastern Iran. Not only Iranian merchants, but also Russian merchants suffered from these robberies. That is why the Minister of Finance Count E. F. Kankrin in a letter to the Minister of Foreign Affairs

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K. V. Nesselrode wrote about the need to establish a Russian cruising fleet in the Gulf of Astrabad, which he reported to the emperor [AVPRI, II-3 1836, op. 34, d. 5, part I, l. 42]. Yes, and the Iranian authorities made attempts to curb the robbers. So, in 1848, the Iranian Ardashir Mirza undertook a campaign in the Turkmen steppe. However, this demarche did not bring success, and, according to Consul M. I. Chernyaev, "it had such a shameful ending for the Persians that the Turkmens began to rob the region's roads more boldly than before, and trade enterprises became even more cramped" [AVPRI, I-9, 1847-1854, op. 8, d. 11, l. 317-317 vol.].

In 1850, the new governor of the Astrabad region, Muhammad Veli Khan, managed to restore order and "put a limit to the predation of Turkmens" [AVPRI, I-9, 1847-1854, op. 8, d. 11, l. 235-235 vol.]. The measures taken by the Russian and Iranian authorities gave their results. In the same year, 1850, some Turkmen elders addressed the Russian consul in Astrabad "with various kinds of petitions and requests for intercession" [AVPRI, I-9, 1847-1854, op. 8, d. 11, l. 249 vol.].

Gradually squeezed by England in the west and center of Iran, Russia showed interest in the north-eastern regions of the country. This, in particular, explains the expeditions of Esaul Lalaev and E. I. Eichwald in 1830 to the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea, the expedition of G. S. Karelin in 1832 and 1836, and the merchant A. M. Gerasimov in 1834. We cannot agree with the conclusions of H. A. Ataev, who believes that " in the 30s there was a significant increase in strengthening and strengthening of trade relations between Russian merchants and industrialists with the Caspian Turkmens. Russian merchants gradually began to displace Iranian merchants in Transcaspia. And this became possible only thanks to the assistance of the coastal Turkmens themselves " [Ataev, 1991, p. 106]. Reports and reports from Russian consuls suggest otherwise. In our opinion, another conclusion of Kh.A. Ataev that "in the 30s - 40s of the XIX century, Turkmens sharply increased their sea trade: they exported oil, salt, fish and fish products, etc." is also incorrect (Ataev, 1991, p. 107). On the contrary, the Turkmens in the period under review had only small vessels for coastal navigation. We read in the report of the titular adviser A. I. Khodzko, translator at the Consulate General in Tabriz: "Gilan buyers should go on special ships to the Turkmens, because they do not know the construction of ships, can not cross the sea on their brittle barges, but only swim near the coast of it and visit Astrabad and other Mazenderan wharves" [AVPRI, II-3, 1831., op. 34, d. 8, l. 98].

Iran's trade relations with the khanates of Central Asia were not easy. Trade was negatively affected by both domestic political events in States and external causes (in particular, robberies and robberies on trade routes). According to P. Nebolsin, Iranian merchants exported cloth, calico, semi-silk fabrics, carpets, furs, spices, and brocade to Bukhara and Khiva. Iranian caravans with turquoise, weapons, sugar, silk, tobacco, grain, and other goods traveled to Central Asia (Nebolsin, 1856, pp. 3-4). P. E. Velichko, director of the Orenburg border customs and head of the customs district there, noted: "... important auctions in Bukharin begin in January and continue until May. By this time, merchants from Russia, Persia, Afghanistan, India, Tibet, Great Tartary and from all the surrounding areas of the Bukhara domain are flocking " [GAOO, l. 12]. The sale and purchase of goods was carried out with gold, silver and copper money. Bukhara chervonets were beaten out of foreign coins (mostly Dutch). In general, foreign currency was freely traded on the territory of the Central Asian khanates.

Bukhara merlushka, carpets, and karakul skins were exported from the khanates of Central Asia to Iran. So, merlushki on caps were annually exported for 10 thousand fogs in the amount of more than 150 thousand pieces [AVPRI, I-9, 1847-1854, op. 8, d. 11,

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l. 193]. By the middle of the 19th century, Russian, Western European and Indian goods began to occupy a significant place in Iran's trade with the khanates of Central Asia, which was a consequence of the growing rivalry between Russia and England in the Middle East.

The centuries-old Central Asian-Iranian trade continued to play an important role in the region's economy. Even during the most intense periods of history, this trade has not been interrupted. Thus, with the campaign of Prince Abbas Mirza to Khorasan, trade relations between Iran and the Bukhara Khanate were threatened. To avoid the risk of being robbed on the borders of Khorasan, merchants established another route - through Astrakhan. P. I. Demezon wrote: "The first caravan that arrived from Mashhad to Bukhara after the death of Abbas Mirza consisted of only 63 camels" [Notes..., 1983, p. 19]. He notes that there are few Iranian traders in Bukhara, because the routes are very dangerous: "... on the way they risk being caught by Turkmens and sold in Khiva" [Notes..., 1983, p. 59]. I. V. Vitkevich notes the same thing: "Persians are safe as long as they are in the city, but on the way they are often robbed and even turned into captivity." It shows that "there are many captive Persians in Bukhara" [Zapiski..., 1983, p. 115].

Despite all these difficulties, trade between Iran and the khanates of Central Asia continued to develop. Motivated by trade interests, Iranian merchants sought markets in neighboring eastern states. Moreover, they expanded the geography of their trading enterprises. Thus, Iranian traders controlled part of Afghan and Indian exports, acted as intermediaries in Russian-eastern trade, and promoted the promotion of Russian goods to the south of Asia.

list of literature

Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire (AVPRI). Main archive. Ataev Kh. A. Trade and economic relations between Iran and Russia in the XVIII-XIX centuries. Moscow, 1991. State Archive of the Orenburg Region. F. 6. Op. 10. d. 394-a. Notes on the Bukhara Khanate. Reports of P. I. Demezon and I. V. Vitkevich, Moscow, 1983. Nebolsin P. Trade relations of the Central Asian possessions among themselves and caravan messages between them // Essays on trade between Russia and Central Asia. St. Petersburg, 1856.


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