Libmonster ID: KZ-2438

A significant part of the works of David Kugultinov (born in 1922) was written during the Soviet period, so they are devoted to the events and realities of the time in which the poet worked: "Our Kalmyk angel - "Ragni", / Ragni - the sources of light.../ But who, tell me, these days / Seriously believes in this! / And I?! Yes, I-from a young age - / Adherent of godlessness, /Neither angels nor devils / Do not recognize... And yet... "(the poem "Ragni", not dated) [Kugultinov, 1988, III, p. 403] 1 . In D. Kugultinov's poetry, national artistic traditions were stronger than the social trends of the author's life and work. The purpose of this work is to read D. Kugultinov's poetry from the perspective of the Kalmyks ' system of values, to interpret it in a new way, which, in my opinion, should be expressed in showing the author's use of Buddhist images, terms, formulas in the literary text; to interpret the role of Buddhism in the author's system of values, thereby contributing to the expansion and enrichment of reader spaces.

The spiritual and moral state of modern society cannot be assessed without reference to the origins, to the historical experience of previous generations. Previous experience shows that religion occupied a great place in the life of the Kalmyk people.: "Lamaism has deeply penetrated the Kalmyks' worldview... covered all aspects of life... The Buddhist-Lamaist religion was absolutely the dominant ideology of the Kalmyks until the victory of the October Revolution "(Erdniev, 1985, p. 236). At present, most Kalmyks perceive Buddhism as a national-religious form of understanding being [see: Nadneeva, 1994, p. 22].

The subject of the article is the study of the concrete-conceptual content and linguistic expression of the sacred in the poetry of D. Kugultinov. The sacred is realized through particular semiotic alternations of linguistic and ethno-cultural interest. Both appellatives and proper names have a sacred meaning. In the process of cross-cultural communication, it is always necessary to explain the gaps-discrepancies in cultural realities. To this end, various types of historical and cultural comments are made in this article. Confessional Buddhist vocabulary in the Russian translation of D. Kugultinov's works consists of two groups of words: words that are present in the original text, left in the Russian text without translation; words that are absent in the original text, included in the Russian text by translators. The first group includes such words as Buddha (image), burkhans (gods), amulanga (name of a magic herb), arza (milk vodka), arshan (consecrated water and food), bortsuk (flatbread made with animal fat or oil), gegen (name of a holiday), Dalai Lama (title of a holiday).), datsan (pagoda),

1 Most of the analyzed works were translated by Yu. Neumann. In its translations, the translator's last name is not indicated, while in other translations, the names of translators are indicated.

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kurde (top hat with prayer text), lamas (Buddhist monks), huur (bow-string instrument). Total words - 12. Of these, the words Buddha, arza, arshan, bortsuk, datsan, kyurde, khuur are used to refer to sacred artifacts. These objects function as an important artistic detail in contexts related to the Buddhist theme. The attitude to sacred objects characterizes the characters: for example, the image of the Buddha was in every house, which expressed the piety of all the characters. For example, in the fairy tale poem " The Lord of Time "or in the poem"Ascent". In it, an old sherpa before his death: Down to the people-down, he slid in the fog, /To the pagoda-datsan / Wash away the traces of everything bad,.. [Kugultinov, 1988, III, p. 423] 2 . Sacred onyms used by D. Kugultinov: theonyms-Buddha, Darke, Ochir Vani, White Elder, Erlik; gheortonym-gegen; calendar onyms - Tsagan month, Horse month, Sheep month, Tushu day. Some proper names used in D. Kugultinov's works (anthroponyms, toponyms, calendar onyms) are also associated with Buddhism. Wordamulanga is located on the appellative-onomastic borderline: graphically it is passed as a common name, but contextually it is a proper name. D. Kugultinov's poem "Revolt of Reason" uses the Buddhist mantra Om-mani-bad-mekhom (Om, you are a treasure on the lotus).

Buddhist vocabulary is used by the author in literary fairy tales and realistic poetry. Most of these words are found in the fairy-tale poem "The Lord of Time" [Kugultinov, 1988, I, pp. 492-548]: arza, bortsuk, Dalai Lama, lamas, pagoda, huur and sacred onyms (Buddha, Erlik, God Darke).

Theonyms. "There is no image of Buddha in the literature of Kalmykia of the XX century" [Jambinova, 2000, p. 107], nor is it in the poetry of D. Kugultinov, but the theonym Buddha is mentioned by the poet repeatedly. In Kalmyk, the Buddha is called Burhan-bagshi - the Great Teacher (teacher of faith), dosl. burhan-bagsha - god-teacher; the word burhan is a Turkic-Mongolian modification of the term "Buddha". The theonym Buddha is used twice in the poem "Revolt of Reason "(1970) [Kugultinov, 1988, II], both times accompanied by the epithet: almighty Buddha, benevolent Buddha. For example, in the eastern fairy tale "The Iron Bird": Here the sage Honey Lips / Before the Khan fell on all fours / And then raised his hands, as if / Before him the almighty Buddha himself (p.278). It is shown that the subjects treated the khan as a god. In the poem "The Lord of Time "(p. 510): The Khan rises to the throne... /And everyone, having bowed to the ground, / Fell silent... / So in the temple / Listen to the Dalai Lama. The author shows that the ruling class used people's faith in God for their own purposes, and the khan's power seemed to be pre-established by God from above. The sacralization of the khan and Khan's power among the Kalmyks occurred because the Khan's power was confirmed by the Dalai Lama.

The phrase "benevolent Buddha" is used in the poem "Revolt of Reason" in the story about the consequences of the atomic explosion in Hiroshima: Everything, everything was lost./...And only those who have not learned oblivion / Restless shadows are restless: the mother who..., the father who ... and the son who ... / Of his Love- / The gray-haired elder: to the benevolent Buddha / He never had time to call for a miracle (p. 235). In this context, the Buddha is the god of the Japanese. In the poem "Conversation with Arjuna" to the question of Arjuna, a guide to India, Is it true that the poet is the wisdom of the Buddha? - the poet answers: Yes,.. / But the soul of a child (Not dated, translated by V. Eremenko) [Kugultinov, 1988, III, p. 340]. The theonym is used twice as part of the phrase "the great Buddha" in the poem "Ascension". In both uses, the phrase acts as emotional derivatives of interjections that express the hero's reaction to various events in his life. In the first example, between-

2 If several examples from the same works are given, the full bibliographic data of the works should be indicated for the first examples, in other cases, the pages of these publications should be given in parentheses.

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dometie expresses regret: The sherpa has lived for a long time, /But it has become difficult to climb, / And in his eyes - the great Buddha! - /Black flies are circling. / He realized: the timing is right / Go on a long journey, /To an unknown path, from where / No one came back (p. 423); in the second case, it expresses joy: He is below... Great Buddha! You have indeed performed a miracle... (p. 425). The interjection great Buddha is formed from full-meaning words that do not have a nominative meaning in this case, it is an expressive and emotional means, the epithet increases emotionality; it is separated from other elements of the text by an exclamation mark. In D. Kugultinov's poem " In the Shadow of the bo Tree "(Undated, translated by S. Lipkin) [Kugultinov, 2002, II, p. 310] Buddha-Gautama Shakyamuni: In India, where the bo tree, like a miracle, / On the Bhopal land bloomed, / Where the Buddha first indulged / In thoughts about good and evil. Evil, ... / I became a shadow... The tree of that saint, / And, as if likened to a Buddha, / I decided then to reflect: / What is... / Suddenly there was a feeling in my soul, / Like a bo tree... From the mythology of Buddhism, it is known that enlightenment descended on Shakyamuni under the Bodhi tree. Bodhi (Skt., pali)- "awakening", "enlightenment" - is one of the key concepts of Buddhism, meaning the highest state of consciousness, spiritual enlightenment [Buddhism, 1992, p. 47]. In D. Kugultinov's poetry, Buddha appears as the god of the Kalmyks, Japanese, Indians, and Sherpas. The theonym is used in three poems ("Lord of Time" - 1 time," Rebellion of the Mind "and" Ascent " - 2 times each) and in poems ("At the Tibet Bazaar" - 8," Conversation with Arjuna" - 1, "In the shadow of the bo Tree" - 3).

In addition to the theonym Buddha 3 , D. Kugultinov's poetry uses the theonyms Darke and Ochir Vani. Darke is a goddess, and in the poem "The Lord of Time" bot Darke is mentioned: / And the God Darke is witness to that! (p. 537). In the original: Dark gerch bolg, - (Tsag-zalach) [Kegltin Dava, 1982, II, p. 275]4-lit.: "let Darke be a witness". The theonym Darke was formed from the combination Dara-eke - Dara-mother: there was a reduction of vowels, since the Kalmyk language is not characterized by the" gaping " of vowels. In the poem, the theonym is used without its own definitions Tsagan, Nogan. Tsagan Dyarke (White Tara), Nogan Dyarke (Green Tara) are popular female images in the pantheon of Buddhist mythology. The Sanskrit word Tara, meaning "savior", "deliverer", corresponds to the Tibetan word Dolma, Mongolian Dar. In the poem "The Flower that Overcame the Storm" (1973), dyarkeis an interjection, expresses amazement, satisfaction [Kugultinov, 1977, II, p. 445]: Everyone looks at the portrait in amazement: / What kind of miracle is there in a girl's hand?.. /And finally they exclaim: / - Dyark!...

As an interjection expressing fright, fear, the theonym Ochir Vani is used in the poem "Elte": Spy-khan: - In the bazaar-Ochir Vani!... - / Witch! "may the Khan hear!" - /With God-defying words / Insults the khan's dignity (Not dated) [Kugultinov, 1988, III, p. 441]. In the poem, the theonym is used twice, the second example: The Khan was also knocked down, / And thought with a shudder, / To pray for "Ochir Vani", / But my head is spinning, / All the words are scattered (p. 445). In the second example, Ochir Vani is the proper name of the deity. It is considered correct to write the theonym in one word (cf. Vajrapani). Ochirvani is one of the supreme deities in the pantheon of Buddhism. Ochir is the Mongolian name for the symbol that this god holds in his hand, cf. his Sanskrit name is Vajrapani, which literally means "the hand holding the vajra". In Tibetan, the symbol is called dorje, in texts it is defined as "diamond", "thunder axe", "bundle of crossed lightning bolts". Ochir (vajra) is a permanent attribute of this bo-

3 The article identifies a group of expressive sacred words and phrases that include mentioning the names of deities in vain, without any connection with religion. These interjections do not express a direct appeal to God, but, being interjections, nevertheless the theonyms Buddha and Ochir Vani are written with a capital letter.

4 Examples from the original works of D. Kugultinov are given in: [Kegltin Dava, 1981, 1982].

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celebrations. This object is a symbol of Buddhism, just as the cross is a symbol of Christianity, and the crescent is a symbol of Islam. The main function of this deity is to destroy stupidity and delusion.

The patron deities include Tsagan Ava (the White Elder) in both his "earthly" and "cosmic" forms. The White Elder is a recurring image: it appears in several of the poet's works. In the poem "Happiness and Sorrow" - this is the old white-headed / Kalmyk old fairy tale wizard,... (Not dated, translated by S. Lipkin) [Kugultinov, 1988, I, p. 192]. In the poem "The Lord of Time" - this is the Elder Time silver-headed, gray-haired lord, who ruled the court, reading the Book of Retribution. See an example from the poem: The Mother of Life, addressing Khan Khambal and Haji Noyon (the prince), says: Your deeds cry out to heaven... / And may the right judgment be done upon you / by the silver-headed Ruler of Time,.. / And the mother clasped her hands and called out: ...Join us, here, come down! (p. 529). And the girls - six trembling ragnis-knelt with their hands clasped together / And they offered up humble prayers (p. 530). And when the Elder Time descended from heaven to earth, the ragni pressed their foreheads to the old man's hand, that is, they received a blessing (ads avb). In the poem "Bata-the rider on the bull "(Not dated,) [Kugultinov, 1988, III], this is the wise Guardian of life, the gray-haired elder, who reads the Book of Destinies - the wisest of the wise books, and predicts events from it (p. 476). The elder descended from the tops of the Khingan Mountains on the golden-maned aranzal-a magical heroic horse.

White Elder-included in the Buddhist pantheon (XVIII century) the oldest deity - the guardian of wealth and abundance, happiness and family well-being. His image reflects the ancient cult of his ancestors, the ancestral patron saint. The Kalmyks called Tsagan aav (White Elder) E. P. Bakaeva notes that "... in the everyday consciousness of even many modern Kalmyks, the idea of a supreme Buddhist deity is often associated with the appearance of a White Elder and only then with the image of Shakyamuni Buddha or other Buddhist deities" (Bakaeva, 2003, p.107).

Kalmyk Buddhism is a specific form of religion in which there is a fusion of concepts and images of Buddhism with traditional folk ideas and beliefs that are pre-Buddhist in origin (the cult of the Sky, Tsagan-Ava, Erlik Nomin Khan); Kalmyk Buddhism also reflects the centuries-old experience of Kalmyks ' communication with nature, animal husbandry (folk calendar,etc.). Tsagan-Sar); Kalmyk Buddhism has a connection with folklore (all these phenomena and onyms are found in the oral folk art of the Kalmyks).

Erlik in the works of D. Kugultinov is: a) an evil spirit: 1) And so much trouble I did in that dream!... / The Erliks called this dream "life" / He asked his mother, as in his childhood, for Salvation from Erlik, the evil spirit... ("The Lord of Time", p. 528). In this sense, the noun erlik is a common noun and forms the plural form: erliki. Another example: ... Bembe awoke from his dream. / This is who stands above him, / Of the living with no one comparable? ... / Maybe it's shulma, erlik?! ("The Flower that Overcame the Storm") [Kugultinov, 1977, II, p. 477]. The Kalmyk word shulm means "devil", "demon", "devil", "evil spirit". In this context, the words shulma and erlik are synonymous; b) angel of death: Kalmyk angel of death-Khan Erlik - / Now we are alone, / We cannot outwit him,.. ("Reflections on life and death during illness") [Kugultinov, 1988, II, p. 34]; c) the lord of death: ... the wise man / Molvil: - It is true that they say: / Together the people are brave, / They will overcome even hell. / If Khan Erlik gets caught , he will crush his people ("Zorigte") [Kugultinov, 1977, II, p. 423]. In addition to the fairy tale "Zorigte", the name is also found in the poem "Reflection": They live in the legends of the days of past troubles, / And now you (Kalmykia. - L. O. ) - not a victim of Khan Erlik / The lord of death did not overtake you / You are under the protection of the great Motherland, / And bra-

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and your sisters ("Reflection") [Kugultinov, 1988, II, pp. 117-118]. The poem was written in 1973, dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the formation of the USSR, celebrated in 1972. When it comes to the lord of hell, Erlik is a proper name and is used together with the title khan. The use of a folk character replaces the expression "we are dying": "the angel of death... they take us one by one" or "Kalmykia is alive, not dead": "you are not a victim, the lord of death has not overtaken". In the poems of D. Kugultinov, the ruler of the afterlife appears under the name of Khan Erlik, who is also called Erlik Nomin Khan in another way.

As B. U. Kitinov writes, due to its exceptional religious tolerance, Buddhism "could peacefully coexist with various local religious cults and enter into a symbiosis with them. Thus, the Oirats 'ideas about the afterlife bizarrely intertwined Buddhist ideas about the heavenly paradise with shamanic ideas about the underworld of their ancestors" (Kitinov, 2004, p.64).

Among the theonyms Buddha, Darke, Ochirvani, White Elder, Erlik, Kalmyks use the names Darke, Ochirvani, White Elder, Erlik; instead of the theonym Buddha, the name Burhan-bagshi (Burhan) is used. This phenomenon is confirmed by the original texts of D. Kugultinov's works. Thus, the poem "Tsag-zalach" does not use the theonym Buddha, which is available in its Russian translation - the poem "Lord of Time". The Kalmyk poem does not mention God in this context. There is no theonym Buddha in the poem "Ukhana buclt" [Kegltin Dawa, 1982, II, pp. 291-424], and in its translation "Revolt of Reason" it is used twice. In the first case, the translator introduced the theonym Buddha in accordance with the content of the Kalmyk context: the sage fell to his knees in front of the khan, raised up his palms, prostrated himself in prayer, and, rising up, said to the Khan... In the second case, the combination Zunkva deed burkhndan, which literally translates to "the supreme god Zunkva", is translated with the words benevolent Buddha. Zunkwa Geghyan Kalmyks called Tsongkhava (1357-1419) - a Tibetan religious figure, founder of the Gelugpa school, which is the historical religion of the Kalmyks, author of multi-volume books on Buddhism.

The concepts of God and Heaven in the poetry of D. Kugultinov. In D. Kugultinov's poems "Living Water" and "Murder in the Church", the Kalmyk word burkhan is used together with the Russian synonym: In the years that disappeared, having sunk into the abyss, / We were told this: / "Rice is the food of the gods, burkhans, /This is the heavenly grain"... / Rice!.. Not at the feast, not in the days of gegen / Our paths met! /Here you are standing in water up to your knees / In our steppe - rice! ("Living Water") [Kugultinov, 1976, I, p. 320]; in the poem "Murder in the Church": Through a dream I saw /How other Gods shone to me, / Tender as our burkhans,... (Not dat., translated by S. Lipkin) [Kugultinov, 2002, III, p. 212]. In the poem "Living Water" in the context under consideration, another Buddhist term is used - the georthonym gegen. The fact that this word is the name of a Buddhist holiday is indicated by a page-by-page footnote. In this sense, as far as I know, the word is used only in the work of D. Kugultinov. In the " Kalmyk-Russian Dictionary "(KRS) and in the "Explanatory Dictionary of Traditional Kalmyk life" by G. Ts. Pyurbeev (Elista, 1996), the word "gegen" (see: zunkwa gegen) specified as a two-digit number: 1) "one of the highest ranks of the Buddhist clergy"; 2)" a respectful address to a person of the highest Buddhist rank (serene highness, serene highness) " [KRS, 1977, p.134; Pyurbeev, 1996, p. 152]. In the poem "Living Water", the words burkhn and geghyan found in the original text of the poem ("Khayartya undn") are left without translation [Kegltin Dava, 1981, I, p.351].

The analyzed examples show that if we are talking about the Kalmyks ' gods, the word burkhn remains unchanged in the Russian translation; if we are talking about god without reference to the Kalmyks, the Kalmyk word is translated. Kalmyk synonyms of the word burkhn, used instead of it, are translated. For example: How strange Gods shone to me / Gentle as our burkhans ("Murder in the Church", p. 212). Translated by N. Matveeva:

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And she trotted away quickly, / whispering: "God save you!" ("I remember the past. I remember", 1957) [Kugultinov, 1988, I, p. 72]. Compare: The one who, without the consent of the higher forces / Rushed too greedily to this life, / The Lord of the world struck with punishment, / Having breathed into him the vocation of a poet, ... Or: Having seen the result of his deeds from heaven, God will laugh thunderously. ("The one who is without the consent of the higher powers"), [Kugultinov, 1988, I, p. 298].

There are contexts in which the word "heaven" is synonymous with the word "god". For example: 1) the poem "The Flower that overcame the Storm": Alma takes out the portrait of her beloved,/ ...Bembe's radiant gaze is lovingly turned to Alma... Yun is still the same-kind, enlightened ... / Glory to heaven! ... (p. 454). 2) The poem "Testament": The country given to me by heaven! [Kugultinov, 1988, II, p. 200]. 3) The poem "On the eve of spring, already unexpectedly": And now, when the fields and slopes / Covered with a glittering flooring, / Promising a rich harvest ,/ I thanked the sky (1973) [Kugultinov, 1988, II, p.105]. The poem "Rain" is similar in content to this poem [Kugultinov, 1988, II, pp. 132-133]. Appeals to heaven (God) are found in the poem "Mother's Gold" (Kugultinov, 2002, I, p. 283-287), see the poem "Zorigte": Heaven does not give a son, /Who would prolong the glorious race! (p.401).

In D. Kugultinov's poetry, tengr (sky) and burkhn ( god) are identical concepts that replace each other, and their designations are synonymous. The synonymous use of the words "God-Sky" is explained by two reasons: first, the Kalmyks have worshipped the Eternal Blue Sky since ancient times; second, the Sky is the seat of deities. The words tengr, burkhn are often used in the Kalmyk language in combinations of burkhn tengr, tengr burkhn, as G. Ts. Pyurbeev writes, "thus indicating the peaceful coexistence of pagan (shamanic) and Buddhist traditions in the situation of "fate-man" " [Pyurbeev, 1998, p. 98].

In the works of D. Kugultinov, the words burkhn, deeds, zayach, hyarkhn, tengr are synonymous and have the meaning "God".

In Buddhism, the gods are divided into calm (amulng) and fierce (dogshn burkhd - dokshity). Ochirvani is a formidable deity, his epithets: "having great power", "fierce". This theonym is used in the poem "Elte". In the poem " The firmament is cruel again!" it is said about the endless heat that continues in summer, spring, and autumn. The hero of the poem exclaims whether this heat is not a punishment for the fact that ...too bold in the world of luminaries / We invade like gods, /And this is the god of terrible forces / I don't like it in the end, /And here is an invisible hole, / From where moisture flows, / Battened down and sent heat / To the land of Fireface?.. And further in the poem: Oh, if only in these fairy tales-dreams / I believed seriously! /I'm talking about mitigation of guilt / I would pray to heaven tearfully... [Kugultinov, 1988, II, pp. 194-195]. The ancient rite of rain evocation was called zad byarkh, lit.: hold the "backside" stone, i.e. summon rain with a magic stone. The rite was performed by special people-zadchi. Compare lines from a love poem: And I begged for your gaze / with every vein/: So, surely, my steppe kinsman / Cried out for moisture, languishing with thirst ,/ And the heavens in their greatness / Not refreshed by the blissful rain!.. ("Monologue of Gratitude") [Kugultinov, 1988, II, p. 71].

In the poem "Neoborimy", an astrologer is mentioned: Over the Volga - as an astrologer would say -/Constellations moved in the sky, / Wars appeared to others. / Under the Stalingrad fire wall / The invaders ' luck changed... [Kugultinov, 1988, II, p. 350].

In the Kalmyk clergy, there was a spiritual hierarchy (manji, getsel, gelyung), an administrative hierarchy (lama, bakshi - abbot, etc.) and a division by specialization: zurkhachi - astrologer, emchi - healer, zurachi - artist. The astrologer is the protagonist of D. Kugultinov's fairy tales. The" famous and highly experienced astrologer and astrologer "is described in a fairy tale narrated in a prison cell by the main character of the poem" The Moabite Prisoner " Temir (Kugultinov, 1988, I, p. 424).

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In the fairy tale "Sar-Gerel" is the sage Tsetzen, who is "accustomed to understand the stars" [Kugultinov, 1977, II, p. 309]. The name "Tsetzen" has the meaning of "wisdom", "wise", which is emphasized in the characterization of the hero in the original text:" Tsetzen " gisn neryan / Zugt uhagarn batlsn-Tsetzen confirmed His name with all his mind ("Sar-Girl") [Kegltin Dawa, 1981, I, p.387]. In the fairy tale "The Iron Bird" is ...priests , / Who read the way by the star signs,.. / Sages who have understood perfectly / The hidden secrets of the Universe ("Revolt of Reason", p. 274). The Kalmyks did not have a single event about which they did not turn to Gelyung or Zurkhachi.

The cultural space of D. Kugultinov's poetry includes Buddhist motifs. The Buddhist world of D. Kugultinov is expressed in the system of images, in the manner of behavior of the characters, in their feelings, in the author's position. Despite the fact that all these works were written by a Soviet poet, they show the life of the Kalmyk people in an indissoluble connection with their religious consciousness, i.e. objectively. D. Kugultinov's poetry confirms the words of Yu. N. Solonin: "The history of civilizations does not provide us with a single example of the existence of cultures (civilizations) of an exclusively secular, non-religious type" [Solonin, 2000, p. 3], but only "the history of the XX century is the history of desacralization and a clear illustration of what happens as a result of this process" [Khanova, 2003, p. 137].

In the period from 1930 to 1988, the Buddhist tradition in Kalmykia was interrupted, and researchers call the 60s-80s of the XX century the period of "victorious atheism" (Tavanets, 2001, p. 233). Isn't that why D. Kugultinov's fairy-tale poems provided the most facts and information for studying the problem?: "In D. Kugultinov's fairy-tale poems, fabulousness is a metaphor for modern life... The conventional fairy-tale form is creatively used by D. Kugultinov in order to break through the stereotypes of authoritarian thinking to the living moral and aesthetic foundations of the national consciousness and spirit. The genre of the fairy-tale poem was a kind of reaction to the spirit of totalitarianism prevailing in society " [Pyurveev, 1997, p. 21]. In connection with the above, it is appropriate to cite the following point of view: "Every ethnic culture is based on ethnic constants, which, in the event of an obvious contradiction of reality, remain unchanged when the specific forms of their expression change" [Sampiev, 2003, p.127].

Using the means of a modern literary fairy tale, D. Kugultinov describes the real world. Such were the author's opportunities in Soviet times to talk about true spiritual values. The beginning of fairy-tale poems is characteristic: I heard that in the old days / In a certain country, where, ... ("The Flower that overcame the Storm", p. 435). No, not in our country, /But in a completely different country, / Not now-a long time ago, /In a forgotten, ancient age... ("Elte", p. 434), etc. Lexical and phraseological units denoting sacred concepts and objects, D. Kugultinov always uses as positively marked, all they are used in the direct sense, but most of them are in the genre of fairy tales.

R. A. Dzhambinova writes:"...Writers, as carriers of Eastern consciousness, strive to understand and explain the Buddhist canons in their work. Despite the atheist boom of the Soviet era, they tried to comprehend the religious motives, ideas of Buddhism with its principles, religious rites and rituals. According to D. Kugultinov, he "has always been faithful to Buddhism" " [Jambinova, 2003, pp. 97-98].

The terms Dalai Lama, Lama. In the poem" Lord of Time", the name of the highest official of Buddhism is written with a lowercase letter: the context is neutral, and we are not talking about a specific person. I will give you an example: The Khan rises to the throne... / And everyone, having bowed to the ground, / Fell silent... / So in the temple / Listen to the Dalai Lama. The spelling of the title "Dalai Lama" in Russian texts is not strictly fixed.-

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The Dalai Lama [SIS, 1987, p. 146], the Dalai Lama [OSRYA, 1992, p. 80; USRYA, 2000, p. 133], the Dalai Lama [Buddhism, 1992, p. 104-105], the Dalai Lama [Dictionary of Indo-Tibetan and Russian Buddhism, 2000, pp. 109-110]. The title " Dalai Lama "is of Mongolian origin, meaning" ocean-teacher", i.e. a teacher whose knowledge is infinite, like the ocean. Of all the spellings, the following two are preferred: Dalai Lama, Dalai Lama. The hyphenated spelling is explained by the fact that the first part of the title - Dalai - is an appendix, it merges together with the defined noun into one complex whole. The second part of the title should be written either with a lowercase letter: the word lama in both Kalmyk and Russian can be used independently as a common noun, or with a capital letter: this is the name of the highest official of the Buddhist religion, in such names all words, except for official pronouns, are written with a capital letter: His Holiness Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Pope of Rome [Semenova, 2000, p.356].

The term lama is used by D. Kugultinov in the fairy-tale poems "The Lord of Time"and " Elte". The term is of Tibetan origin, literally translated as "supreme". The word "lama" is a term with a collective meaning that covers different categories of lamas: from the lowest ranks - getsel, gelyung to the highest-Dalai Lama; lama, i.e. a Buddhist monk. D. Kugultinov creates a negative image of lamas: But when... the Lord / Sent tornadoes and pestilence / On the ill-fated human race, - / Why did they linger, / In their pagodas, / Those who are involved in the gods / Lamas, hundreds of well-fed lamas, / Who look down on them / On the poor Kalmyk / And searchingly kind / With those who bring gifts?! /Could it be that in the hour of need / the Lamas, turn to God, / Could not intercede / For the simple sons of the earth?! / So are the lamas guilty?.. / No! (p. 495). Another example: And praise to his deeds (Khana Khambala-L. O.) / Burning incense / Lifted up to heaven / Lamas-hundreds of well-fed lamas / The brilliance of their awards was so enticing / On the sides of the robes of the saints ...(Lamas in their pagodas / Watch the weather! The last two lines are enclosed in parentheses by the author, they contain the main idea of what was stated earlier: "for the weather" - that is, for the mood and affairs of the khan, for the situation. Both examples are given from the poem "The Lord of Time "(pp. 495, 497). In the poem "Elte", the author writes about lamas: What is there - crooked, what is there - straight, / Lamas cannot explain / There are no number of troubles! (p. 437). However, it should be emphasized that D. Kugultinov's works speak negatively about the mores of Buddhist monks, but not about the Buddhist religion.

Names of sacred artifacts. In the poem "Lord of Time", the theonym Buddha is used only once, it is about the image of the Buddha: Khan Khambal orders the spy to go around all the houses in the country and If there is a house / Where my Statue does not stand before the Buddha / Let it be burned, torn down, / This house is unholy!.. (p.499). In the poem "At the Tibet Bazaar", the word Buddha means " statuette "("bronze Buddhas"). In a bazaar in Delhi, as an Indian man hands over a statuette, he says to a guest: .. My Buddha / Fell into good hands... May he bring peace and quiet / Into the walls of your house!.. (Not dated) [Kugultinov, 1988, III, pp. 321-322].

These words emphasize that the image of the Buddha is not just a souvenir, a thing, but a sign-symbol, a cult object. The image functions as an antithesis to ordinary objects - other souvenirs. The symbolic significance of theonyms does not depend on the context of their use. The hero from a trip to India brings home a statue of Buddha, i.e. God, in memory of this country, although there is nothing on "Tibet"! /Everything is for sale here!

The term "pagoda" is mentioned in the poems " Lord of Time "(2 times) and "Ascent" (1 time). Examples from the first poem: 1) Why did they linger, / In their pagodas, in the shade, / Those who partake of the gods / Lamas, hundreds of well-fed lamas; 2) Lamas in their pagodas / Watch the weather! (pp. 495, 497). From the poem "Ascent": To the people-down, he slid in that-

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mane, /To be in the pagoda-datsan / To wash away the traces of all evil... (p. 423). According to the Dictionary of Foreign Words (SIS), the Sanskrit word "pagoda" refers to a Buddhist or Hindu temple in the form of a pavilion or multi-tiered tower in China, Japan, India and other countries of East and Southeast Asia; the term "datsan" refers to Mongolian origin and has the meaning of "Lamaist temple, monastery" (SIS, 1987, p. 355, 147). However, in the" Big Academic Mongolian-Russian Dictionary "(BAMRS), datsan is listed as a word of Tibetan origin (as evidenced by the corresponding meta), which has the following meanings: 1) "datsan", "temple", "Buddhist temple"; 2) "faculty of a Buddhist university" [BAMRS, 2001, II, p. 42]. According to N. L. Zhukovskaya, the original meaning of this Tibetan term is "the name of the faculty (department) of an educational institution attached to a monastery. Later, in Buryat Lamaism, the word "datsan" became the name of the monastery itself "[Buddhism, 1992, p. 109]. On the interpretation of this term by V. P. Androsov: "Datsan (tib.) is the name of monastic complexes in Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism and, in particular, in Buryatia" [Buddhism, 1992, p. 112] it is necessary to clarify - instead of the word "in Buryatia", it is more correct to say" in Buryat": Buddhist temples are called datsans not only in Buryatia, but also in other territories where Buryats live (Aginsky datsan, Chita datsan). The name of a Buddhist monastery among the Kalmyks from the first half of the XIX century is the word "hurul". In the poem "Tsag-zalach" D. Kugultinov uses the term "khurul", which Yu. Neumann is translated as " pagoda "("Lord of Time").

In the fairy tale "The Flower that Overcame the Storm", the evil old woman, who later turned out to be Musa (the monster), uses the object kurde in her actions with the brothers of Alma (the main character) who were put to sleep by her, the meaning of the word is explained immediately in the text:" kurde, the sacred scroll... " (p.461). The Kalmyk word "kurde" means "cylinder with prayer text".

The word "arshan" refers to consecrated water and food, the word is of Sanskrit origin: Skt. arsaan means "nectar", "sacred (holy) water". Sprinkling arshan and eating it are components of many rituals, including Buddhist ones. In khuruli there was a special position of a pitcher arshan-tsarvuchi. The term "tsarvuchi" is lost. The word "arshan" is often used in Kalmyk fairy tales. In the works of D. Kugultinov, the word "arshan" was found twice in the poems "Volga" and "That the air is fragrant, steppe" and once in the poem "Director": 1) ... returning from distant countries, / I drink your water from a handful / as a healing arshan; 2)...like a benevolent arshan,.. ("Volga") [Kugultinov, 1988, I, p. 94-95].; 3) The fact that the air is fragrant, steppe - / All the same as arshan molodyushchy, - A) Really, youth is arshan / The steppe poured into me, reducing the years ("The fact that the air is fragrant, steppe") [Kugultinov, 1988, II, p. 84]. The word "arshan", used in the poem" The fact that the air is fragrant, steppe", is given a page - by-page footnote: Arshan-nectar. In the poem "Director": The air did not smell like saffron at all, / But it seemed to me like sweet arshan, / and I drank it, / Like the water of a spring in the steppe (undated, translated by D. Dolinsky and V. Strelkov) [Kugultinov, 1988, II, p. 442]. The poet D. Kugultinov uses individual author's comparisons: Volga water, as healing, as benevolent arshan; steppe air, that arshan is young; the air seemed sweet arshan; arshan, as the water of a spring in the steppe. In these examples, the Kalmyk word "arshan" is used, since it has no equivalent in Russian.

E. E. Khabunova, giving convincing arguments in favor of the fact that in the epic" Jangar " arza is a ritual drink with magical properties, draws a parallel between the epic arza and arshan: they coincide in some properties [Khabunova, 2001, p.113]. Arza - twice distilled strong milk vodka. In bowls carried by six wondrous ragni-fairy girls purer than a tear-arza foamed sweetly ("The Lord of Time", p. 523), as indicated in the original text-

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ste-tsatslyn idyan-arz ("Tsag-zalach", p. 257), i.e. it is a drink for sprinkling, food intended for the gods.

Not a single ritual, not a single holiday (especially Tsagan-Sar, bortsoki - sacred gifts-symbols on the spring festival) is complete among the Kalmyks without cooking the national flour dish-bortsuks. The first portion of bortsuks is intended for burkhans-gods. The word "bortsuk" is mentioned in the poems "Equal to the Sun"and" Lord of Time". In the poem" Equal to the Sun " (translated by L. Penkovsky) [Kugultinov, 1976, I], bortsuki are an obligatory element of gifts brought by guests to wed a bride: There are mountains of fat bortsuks..., (p. 354). The meaning of the word is explained in the footnote: Bortsuki-tortillas on animal fat or oil. An example from the poem "The Lord of Time": I was looking forward to Haji, when suddenly / Warm bortsuk will crunch!.. / The best gifts of the earth / The girls brought to the guests (p. 523). Bortsuki have a different shape, the shape expresses a certain meaning.

The ragni girls were said to carry food similar to arshan; several dishes are listed, indicating the ritual utensils they were in, among these dishes are named arza and bortsuki. All this food was respectfully presented to Khan Khambal and Prince Haji.

From the white caravan between the mountains, in which the Mother of Life and the six ragni lived, and from which six ragni came out with the best gifts of the land to meet Khan Khambal and Haji Noyon... khura sad sound / Slightly sounded from under the nightmare ("The Lord of Time", p. 522). Among all musical instruments, the khur is mentioned-an ancient traditional bowed-string instrument of the Mongolian peoples, among the Buryats it is a ritual attribute, a means of magical influence, an intermediary between the divine world and man [Demin, 2000, p.18]. In the Buddhist canonical literature, there is evidence that the heavenly maidens delight the righteous in the paradise of Buddha Amitabha with the sounds of khurs [Lamaism in Buryatia, 1983, p. 91].

In the original text (in the poem "Tsag-Zalach"), the words khuur, arshan, arz, bortsuk are used in the same context, which has a ritual meaning. Translated (in the poem "The Lord of Time") the words khur, arza, bortsuk are preserved, but the words arshan are not. Among the Buddhist terms - names of sacred artifacts (Buddha, arza, arshan, bortsuk, datsan, kurde, khuur), the words Buddha and datsan (pagoda) are not used in the Kalmyk language. In the Kalmyk language, the word burkhn is used in the meanings of "god" and "deity", and the word hurul is used in the meaning of "Buddhist monastery". The terms "Buddha" and "datsan" (pagoda) were introduced into the Russian text by the translator.

Poetic prayer of D. Kugultinov. An example of a poetic prayer is the following text from D. Kugultinov's poem "Revolt of Reason":: And in the course of long,long years / The people of the world began each dawn / with the sweet verse of Antiquity: - Om-mani-bad-mekhom! / The gods who bestow blessings on us! / Restrain from a bad step / Those who decide to start a war! / Send down peace and quiet!.. / All the good ones!.. Give us some backup! / Reason-clear, fair, strict! / Heart that knows no trouble , / sunlit roads, / Golden happiness on the threshold, / Sweet gods send down! / May the world not be wrapped in sin! / We sing: Om-mani-bad-mehom! (p. 288).

Om-mani-bad-mehom is the Sanskrit text of the most popular magic mantra in all Buddhist countries. This prayer formula is recited by counting the rosary beads, Buddhists of all nationalities. According to N. L. Zhukovskaya, the mantra consists of six independent syllables: om ma ni pad me hum; each of them is associated with one of the six worlds of the universe. : "Quite often in literature it is written in the form of four syllables:" Om mani padme hum "and even translated" Om, you are a treasure on the lotus", which fully corresponds to the real meaning in Sanskrit of the words included in it: mani-jewel, pearl; padma-lotus flower. The highest levels of Buddhist clergy and educated Buddhists through

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chanting this mantra aims to achieve enlightenment. For ordinary Buddhists, it is an ordinary everyday prayer" [Buddhism, 1992, pp. 198-199]. In the text of D. Kugultinov's poem "Ukhana buclt", the mantra consists of six syllables separated by a hyphen: Om-ma-ni-bad-me-hom!, given twice (p. 372). The mantra exists in different sound variants, in addition to the above, Tibetans say it-Om mani peme hum, Kalmyks-Om maan vednyahn / maan mednyahn (oh, my God! oh, my God!), but "the power and impact of mantras do not depend on the accuracy of their pronunciation, but on the spiritual attitude, knowledge and responsibility of the person who utters them" [Muzraeva, 2003, p.46-47; Anagarika Govinda Lama, 1993, p. 209-210]. In the Kalmyk fairy tale "Arji-Burji Khan", a variant is fixed - Om mani padma hum. Ordinary Kalmyk believers knew neither Tibetan nor Sanskrit, and they memorized prayers by heart. The oral form of prayers ' existence, their transmission from generation to generation from memory, led to the distortion of canonical texts and the emergence of variants.

В поэме Д. Кугультинова фрагмент текста-источника интегрируется в текст-носитель, по типу межтекстовых связей это цитата. Использование поэтом молитвы подчеркивает ее действенность, усиливает процесс переживания героя. Мантра создает в тексте высокую тональность, поддержанную другими элементами текста: сочетаниями "Боги, нам дарующие блага", "Ниспошлите мир и тишину", "Все благие!", "Сладостные боги". Указанные элементы текста служат включению читателя в тему, связанную с мольбой и обращениями к богам о мире. У одних читателей цитата, вызывая воспоминание другого текста - молитв, активизирует фрагмент имеющегося индивидуального опыта; для других - открывает новое ментальное пространство. При помощи этой магической словесной формулы обращаются к Богу с различными просьбами. Автор, отсылая читателя к текстам молитв, освобождается от необходимости еще долго что-то рассказывать и доказывать. Поэтической молитвой Д. Кугультинов завершает сказку "Железная птица". Стилистическая функция цитаты усилена ее положением в заключительной части сказки, она повторяется дважды, контекстуально актуализирована: служит усилению торжественного звучания текста. Кроме этого, данная формула в тексте поэмы Д. Кугультинова выполняет следующие функции: а) придает тексту эмоциональную окрашенность, б) отсылает к претексту Древности, в) характеризует индивидуальный стиль автора. Важно подчеркнуть, что молитвенная формула используется в произведении, написанном в 1965- 1970 гг., русский перевод поэмы датируется 1970 г.

The prayer formula can be used both in connection with religious beliefs and outside of the obligatory connection with them. Often it is reduced to the first three syllables. Here are some examples: 1) That's what it turned out to be, trouble! / Gerel told me everything at home. / My family was worried then ... / - Oh, maani, oh, maani! / God save us! God save us! - /In horror, my mother whispered more than once - / What a mess!.. And strong and brave! / I saved my daughter from a terrible death!.. - In this usage, the words o, maani, o, maani are a reduplicated vocative. Repetitions of messages are a means of emotional reinforcement, the purpose of which is to achieve a greater impact on the addressee of speech. The expression o, maani, o, maani is a stable expression that has passed into interjections. The meaning of Kalmyk interjections is conveyed by the Russian equivalent expressions given next to them: God save us, God save us: this refers to the decisive denial of a disaster that could have happened. Vocatives are accompanied by a page-by-page note that they are "the beginning of a Buddhist prayer" (Sar-Gerel, p. 286). 2) Gerel screamed: "Oh, maani! - /And, prayerfully clasping her hands, / Like her great-grandmothers from time immemorial, / Before the Sun she stopped in a bow: (p. 291). Here, O maani! "oh, my God! - Appeal to the Sun: Gerel worships the Sun as a God. The word "ma'an" is also used in the sense of "the name of one of the Buddhist prayer formulas" or in the broad sense of "prayer". See, for example, in the original text of the poem "Sar-Girl".

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3) In the examples from the poem " The Flower that overcame the Storm "(pp. 451-452, 482), the word "maani" is an interjection that expresses: a) amazement, satisfaction-The water is shiny and soft - / Babbles to it: "Take a look!".. - /Alma over the surface of the lake / Bent... "Maani!" / The most beautiful creature / She smiled suddenly. / - And I'm really nothing! - /Alma said aloud; b) concern-One by one the brothers stood up: / - Maani! We slept for a long time. / It's time for us to get to work!.. In my opinion, in the poem" Mother's Gold "(p. 284), the word "maani" is an address, not an interjection: ... Seeing what the handkerchief held, / She excitedly said, " Oh, maani! And in the distance / I'm not a stranger to the Burkhans! " / lay sparkling in her hand,/...Chervonets! Mother's words: O maani! And in the distance / I am not a stranger to burkhans - they are a prayer: there is a vocative, an indirect expression of gratitude. According to the semantic type, this is a prayer of praise.

Thus, the beginning of a Buddhist mantra is used by Kalmyks in two meanings: as a vocative, i.e. the word "maan" has the meaning "god", and its other meaning is "text of a special genre". These examples of the use of the word "maan" are metonymic phenomena. D. Kugultinov's use of a single word more often than the entire mantra is largely determined by the tasks of a special rhythmic organization of the poetic text.

In D. Kugultinov's poetry, the Buddhist world is an integral part of the Kalmyk mentality, it is represented by two levels: lexical-phraseological and cultural-semantic. The first level is manifested in the use of Buddhist terms, theonyms, and prayer formulas. This vocabulary makes up a significant part of the speech material that demonstrates the national and cultural features of the language in D. Kugultinov's poetry. To reveal the topic of the article, we have given various kinds of comments - encyclopedic, background, national and cultural studies. Without these comments, readers may either not notice important details, or they may not understand the meaning of Kalmyk words, since some of them are not included in dictionaries, and those available in dictionaries are not sufficiently explained in them. These comments will be useful to facilitate understanding of the content of D. Kugultinov's works of art. Without knowledge of the cultural realities and peculiarities of the Kalmyks ' mentality, the works of D. Kugultinov as a national poet will not be fully understood, since these linguistic means characterize D. Kugultinov as a representative of his people.

The second level is represented by introducing images and details - objects, customs, holidays, and behavioral characteristics-into the text.

Empirical results of modern sociological studies [Imkenova, 1999, p.63-64; Namrueva, 2001, p. 276; Namrueva, 2003, p. 275-277] show that Kalmyks respondents necessarily include religious criteria among the important criteria of their ethnicity. They define the Buddhist religion as a factor of spiritual revival of the Kalmyk people.

list of literature

Anagarika Govinda lama. Fundamentals of Tibetan mysticism. St. Petersburg, 1993.

Bakaeva E. P. Pre-Buddhist beliefs of the Kalmyks. Elista, 2003.

BAMRS: A large academic Mongolian-Russian dictionary. In 4 volumes. Moscow, 2001-2002.

Buddhism. Dictionary / Under the general editorship of N. L. Zhukovskaya et al., Moscow, 1992.

Demin A. G. Mongolian bowed instruments, their role and place in the culture of the peoples of Central and Eastern Asia. Author's abstract of the cand. diss. Ulan-Ude Publ., 2000.

Jambinova R. A. Literatura Kalmykii: kanony budd'izma [Literature of Kalmykia: canons of Buddhism]. Saint Petersburg: Elista Publ., 2000.

Jambinova R. A. Literature of Kalmykia: problems of development. Elista, 2003.

Imkenova A. B. Ethnic identity of the Kalmyks. Elista, 1999.

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KRS: Kalmyk-Russian dictionary. 26,000 words / Edited by B. D. Muniev, Moscow, 1977.

Kegletin Dava. Gurvn botta uudyavrmudin hurangu (Kugultinov David. Collected works in 3 volumes). Elista, 1981-1982.

Kitinov B. U. Sacred Tibet and the Militant Steppe: Buddhism among the Oirats (XIII-XVII centuries). Moscow, 2004.

Kugultinov D. N. Collected Works in 3 volumes, Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literatura, 1976-1977.

Kugultinov D. N. Collected Works in 3 volumes, Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literatura, 1988.

Kugultinov D. N. Collected works in 3 volumes. Norilsk, 2002.

Lamaism in Buryatia of the XVIII-early XX centuries. Structure and social role of the cult system. Novosibirsk, 1983.

Muzraeva D. N. O prayevennykh tekstakh dharani (po materialam tibetskoy kollektsii Kalmykskogo instituta gumanitarnykh issledovaniy RAN (KIGI RAS)) [On Dharani Prayer Texts (based on the materials of the Tibetan collection of the Kalmyk Institute for Humanitarian Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences)]. Elista, 2003. N 2.

Nadneeva K. A. Buddhism in Kalmykia: moral foundations. Elista, 1994.

Namrueva L. V. Problems of sociocultural reality in the Republic of Kalmykia // Bulletin of KIGI RAS. Elista, 2001.

Namrueva L. V. K voprosu o kognitivnom komponente etnicheskoi identichnosti (po rezul'tatov anketnogo oprosa) [On the issue of the cognitive component of ethnic identity (based on the results of a questionnaire survey)]. Elista, 2003.

OSRYA: Orthographic dictionary of the Russian language, Moscow, 1992.

Pyurbeev G. TS. Tolkovyi slovar ' traditsionnogo byta kalmykov [Explanatory dictionary of traditional life of the Kalmyks]. Elista, 1996.

Pyurbeev G. TS. Kontsept sudby v kul'tury mongol'skikh narodov [The concept of destiny in the culture of Mongolian peoples]. Teegin gerl. 1998.N 6.

Pyurveev V. D. Poeziya mysli [Poetry of thought] // Teegin girl. 1997. N 2.

Sampiev I. M. Etnokul'turnye tsennosti repressirovannykh narodov: kharakter i posledstviya transformatsii [Ethno-cultural values of repressed peoples: the nature and consequences of transformations]. Elista, 2003.

Semenova N. M. Uppercase or lowercase? // Big dictionary of the Russian language, Moscow, 2000.

SIS: Dictionary of Foreign Words, Moscow, 1987.

Dictionary of Indo-Tibetan and Russian Buddhism: main names, basic terms and doctrinal concepts / Comp. V. P. Androsov, Moscow, 2000.

Solonin Yu. N. Kul'tura i problema sakralnosti [Culture and the problem of sacrality]. Saint Petersburg: Elista Publ., 2000.

Tavanets S. D. Buddhist worldview of the Kalmyks in the dialogue of Christian and Buddhist cultures. Elista, 2001.

USISRYA: Universal dictionary of foreign words of the Russian language, Moscow, 2000.

Khabunova E. E. Motif of the feast "arziin suyur" in the heroic epic "Dzhangar" / / Problems of modern Kalmyk studies. Elista, 2001.

Khanova O. V. Etnokul'turnye tsennosti repressirovannykh narodov: poteraty i problemy ikh vozrozhdeniya [Ethno-cultural values of repressed peoples: losses and problems of their revival]. Elista, 2003.

Erdniev U. E. Kalmyks. Elista, 1985.


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