Libmonster ID: KZ-2441

Historical source

In recent years, the appeal to the historical memory of its people has become particularly important in Buryatia against the background of the growth of national consciousness. The introduction of the Buryat chronicles into scientific circulation is of great importance. Thus, the Buryat historical chronicles written in the Old Mongolian script, published after a long period of oblivion in modern Buryat and Russian, caused a response among the public of the republic: "Buryaadai Tuuhe besheguud" ("Buryat Historical Chronicles") and"Buryat Chronicles". They are valuable historical and literary monuments of the XVII-XIX centuries, containing rich material on the history, everyday life, traditional culture and beliefs of Buryats living in the Baikal region.

This article will focus on the chronicles of the Khorinsky Buryats. Currently, the Khorinsky Buryats live most compactly in Transbaikalia: in the Republic of Buryatia and the Aginsky Buryat Autonomous District. The chronicle of Tugultur Toboev " Qor kiged ayuyin buriyad-nar-un urida-dayan boluysan anu "("On how the Khorin and Agin Buryats were formed in the past") was written in 1863 [LKHB, issue 1,1935]. The Old Mongolian text of the work was first published by N. N. Poppe with comments and notes in 1935 in the first issue of "Chronicles of the Khorinsky Buryats". N. N. Poppe also translated this chronicle into Russian, which was published in 1940. The author of the chronicle is an Aginsky Buryat, a representative of the Eastern Huatsai family (subgenus togtor huatsai ) Tugultur Toboev, who held the position of taishi. According to the local historian from the village of Tsagan-Ol (Sagaan-Uula) B-N. Lkhamazhapova, T. Toboev was born in the locality of Ihe-Byrka near the village of Tsagan-Ol (Buryaad Unen, 1993). His ancestor is a certain Khabanshi, who arrived from Mongolia and served in 1705 as a guide for the colonel of the Russian army P. S. Skripitsyn, who was in Siberia for exploration and survey of the lands of the Baikal region.

The genealogical branch of T. Toboev is as follows: Habanshi-Hitan, who was the head (zaisan) of the Eastern Huatsai family, - Dakhi-zaisan-Khadun-zaisan-Munhe-Toba-Tugultur-Bazar-Namdag-Ayusha-Zhalsaray-Tsyrendashi. The descendants of T. Toboev left Russia in 1915 and now live in the Sheneheng area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. T. Toboev's great-grandson, Ayushyn Zhalsaray, his wife and son Tsyrendashi, after many years, first came from Inner Mongolia to Byrka, the homeland of their illustrious ancestor in June 1991. "They needed to see with their own eyes the land, nature and places of Byrka, where the Byrka people lived, where their family comes from, where toonto (small homeland- L. B. ) of their ancestors,- writes B.-N. Lkhamazhapov, who accompanied the descendants of T. Toboev, - to see the land where their ancestors raised cattle, worked, fed, dressed, held rituals, weddings, grieved, seeing off their countrymen from this world on their last journey "(Tolon, 1991).

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In 1814, Tugultur Toboyev held the modest position of clerk of the main Aginsky zaisan. In 1816, he became a clerk at the Agin world hut, and in 1819, he was chosen as a zaisan of the East Huacay family. In 1823, T. Toboev became the chief zaisan, then from 1830 - the elected Aginsky foreign council. In 1839, he became the head of the city council, and when the Aginsky Steppe Duma was established , he became its chairman. In 1842, T. Toboev was confirmed as the second taishi, and from 1859 to 1878, he was the chief taisha of the Aginsky Buryats. Since 1848, he was a correspondent of the Imperial Free Economic Society. Tug-ultur Toboyev was awarded several times: in 1849 he was awarded a silver dirk, in 1854 he received a silver medal on the Annensky ribbon, in 1858 for success in the development of agriculture - the Order of Stanislav of the third degree, in addition, he received monetary awards. T. Toboev is also known as the author of innovations in the field of agriculture: for the construction of hay storage facilities in 1859, he was awarded a commendation from the Council of the Imperial Free Economic Society. During the service period of t. Toboev was awarded various rewards from the highest authorities every year for conscientious performance of his duties. The chronicler himself writes about this in detail on the pages of his work [LKHB, issue 1, 1935, pp. 11-12].

T. Toboev was greatly assisted by one of his assistants and associates, well - known among the Agin and Khorin Buryats-the wise, savvy, sharp-tongued Miintiin Kharlaam (his official name is unknown). [Buryaad Tnen, 1993]. N. N. Poppe notes that T. Toboev entered the history of Buryat-Mongolian literature not only as one of the largest authors, but also as a prototype of one of the main characters of the play by B. B. Baradin and D. R. Namzhilon "Zhigden, or former gentlemen", created in the 20s. XX century [LKHB, issue 1, 1935, p. IX]. As one of the most respected and authoritative people among the Khorin Buryats, not only Buryats, but also Russian Cossacks and settlers turned to him for advice and help. T. Toboev strongly advocated the preservation and multiplication of national traditions and customs, emphasized the ethnic and cultural unity of the Mongolian peoples, actively fought against all kinds of criminal elements gambling enthusiasts, drunkards, and robbers of people's goods [Buryaty, 2004, p. 260].

T. Toboev's chronicle is one of the best Buryat chronicles in terms of its content and style. It covers the entire period of the history of the Khori-Buryats, starting from the era of the Qing Empire and the adoption of the Khori citizenship of the Russian state to the time of the creation of the chronicle.

The text of the chronicle is not divided into separate thematic parts. But it clearly traces the following subjects: the genealogy of the Khori-Buryats; the Khori-Buryats-subjects of the Solongut Bubei-beile Khan; the legend of Balzhin-Khatun, the resettlement of the Khori-Buryats in Transbaikalia; clashes with the Tungus; clashes with Russian Cossacks; the appeal of the Khori Buryats to Peter I; the establishment of the Russian-Chinese border; introduction of the institute of taishinism; the beginning of agriculture; health care, the beginning of smallpox vaccination; description of shamanic rituals; spread of Buddhism and the first Buryat lamas; construction of Buddhist monasteries; steppe dumas and administration of Khori-Buryats.

The chronicle of T. Toboev is one of the most interesting monuments of the book culture of Buryatia of the XIX century, containing valuable materials on the history of the peoples of Transbaikalia and the settlement of the region, the history of Buddhism in Buryatia and the structure of the Buryat administrative system.

Vandan Yumsunov's work "Qori-yin arban nigen ecige-yin jon-u uyijaur-un tuyuji" ("History of the origin of the people of the eleven Horin fathers") was written in 1875. The text of the essay in Old Mongolian script was first published by N. N. Poppe in 1935 in the first issue of "Chronicles of the Khorinsky Buryats". He also published the le in 1940.-

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topis translated into Russian. The chronicle of Vandan Yumsunov, consisting of 12 titled sections, traces the history of the Khorin people from ancient times to the second half of the XIX century. The chronicle presents the history of the spread of Buddhism in Mongolia and Buryatia; gives a detailed description of the beliefs and rituals of shamanism, describes in detail the administrative structure and management of the Khorin people, provides data on the main Khorin taishas and their assistants, the letter of Peter I of March 26, 1703 and all subsequent decrees and instructions of the Russian tsars, according to which The clans were assigned lands from Lake Baikal to the Mongolian borders; information is given about the rights of the Buryats, about the development of the economy of the Khorinsky Buryats, about serving for the benefit of the empire, about the separation of the Aginsky Buryats, etc.

The chronicle of V. Yumsunov covers in detail the life of the Khorinsky Buryats of that time. It is the largest in volume and the most detailed of all the Buryat chronicles. Almost every chapter contains previously unknown facts and details. That is why experts describe it as "a brilliant and unsurpassed work of all Buryat historical works" [LKHB, issue 1, 1935, p. IX].

The author of this chronicle is one of the most educated Buryats of the second half of the XIX century-the head of the Tsagan family, who has the position of shuleng (manchzh. "tax collector"), Vandan Yumsunov (1823-1883), known under another name as Genin Lubsan Tseden Dorzhi Tarbayev. Ts. B. Tsydendambayev in his work published the genealogy of Vandan Yumsunov, written out by him from the genealogical table of the Tsagan family compiled by G. Sanzhiev: Khoridai-Tsagan-Tungin-Mukhor-Kuzygun-Guzhigen - Obgoldoy-Ubyktey-Khangai-Zalbakhan-Sobindoy-Solyu-Unnu-Yumsun-Vandan-Solo-Budozhab-Tsyrendorzhi [Tsydendambayev, 1972, p. 68]. In October 1963, Tsydendambayev met with V. Yumsunov's youngest daughter, Khandazhab Vandanova, who died in January 1964 at the age of 84. According to her, Vandan's father, Yumsun Unnuev, came from Aga to Nizhny Kudun of the Kizhinga aimag when Vandan was still a boy.

Excellent knowledge of the Buryat past and everyday life, familiarity with the files stored in the archives of steppe dumas, the use of folklore materials, awareness of classical Mongolian literature, and the use of expressive language tools allowed the author to write a remarkable work on the history of the Khorinsky Buryats, characterized by an original style that reflects the color, richness, and expressiveness of the Buryat language.

Vandan Yumsunov studied at one of the English mission schools opened in Kudun in 1828 by Englishmen Sarah and Edward Stallibrass. In these schools, students received quite extensive knowledge: they studied arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, land surveying, algebra, history, logic, the Bible, Mongolian classical, Russian, Latin, Greek, English, Tibetan, wrote essays, made translations; in addition, they acquired practical farming skills [Bawden, 1982, p. 4]. 226]. The teachers had assistants, among whom Vandan Yumsunov is mentioned. English missionary schools existed until 1841. Then, by the decision of the Holy Synod, the activities of English missionaries in Russia were discontinued.

After finishing school, Vandan Yumsunov was appointed clerk of the Khorinsky Steppe Duma and engaged in literary activities. In addition to this chronicle, he wrote memoirs in the Old Mongolian language: "A record of memories of the joyful hour when Grand Duke Alexey Alexandrovich, the third son of the great sovereign - emperor, now safely reigning Alexander II Nikolaevich, deigned to arrive in the nomads of the South Baikal region", " About how the eldest taisha and the main ancestor of our 11 Khorinsky fathers Tsydib Badmaev, as well as the head of the Zun-Huatsai family and shuleng Tsyrendorzhi Ayusheev made a pu in 1876.-

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journey to the sovereign capital city of St. Petersburg "[Dugarnimaev, 1986, p. 152-182]. He translated A. S. Pozdneev's work "The Urginian Khutukts" into Old Mongolian, and he also wrote the Khori-Buryat epic "Erieeldei ezen boydo kaan erbed sookor moritoi" ("Emperor Ereldei with a Tiger-spotted Horse") in Old Mongolian script.

Buryat historical works were written on the model of Mongolian chronicles, such as the anonymous chronicle "Altan Tobchi", published by G. Gomboev, the chronicle of Sagan Setsen "Erdeni-yin tobci", and others, but unlike them, the Buryat chronicles were written on the basis of authentic documents of steppe dumas. Moreover, when referring to the documents, the dates and numbers of the relevant orders of the authorities are indicated, which makes them more reliable. In the chronicle of Vandan Yumsunov, business documents, previously written chronicles, oral legends and traditions of Buryats are widely used. All this gave his chronicle a scientific character.

Chronicle of Shirab-Nimbu Hobituev "Ros-un gurun-u jegun siburi-yin dotura ayci buriyad kemeku yasutan jon-u terigun yaru ysan ba tegun dotura-aca qori-yin 11 ecige-yin buriyad jon-u teguke eguni Surabningbuva Qobitu-yin eblegulen bicigsen boluge" ("History of the origin of Buryats of 11 Khorinsky clans the Buryat people of Eastern Siberia of the Russian state") was written in 1887. This work was created by assistant Chief taishi, zaisan of the Galzut Hori-Buryat family Shirab-Nimbu Hobituev , one of the outstanding representatives of the Hori-Buryats of the era of the birth of Buryat enlightenment in the XIX century. Exact data on the life of Sh.- N. Khobituev are not available. The chronicle materials of Vandan Yumsunov indicate that he was one of the most educated and authoritative people among the Khorin Buryats. Sh. - N. Khobituev (nicknamed Noyon-gebshe) lived in Kizhinga. The genealogical table of the Galzut family of the Khorin Buryats reveals its genealogical branch: Barugu-Khoridai-Galzut-Dorgoshi-Bokhoi-Iybedkey-Dari-Darbun-Khoron-Hobitu-Shirab-Nimbu-Tsyrenzhab-Batozhab-Leni (Tsydendambayev, 1972, p. 72). It is known that Sh. - N. Khobituev was elected an elector of the Galzut family in 1866, an elder in 1871, an assessor of the Khorinsky Steppe Duma in 1875, and in 1876 was confirmed as an assistant to the chief Khorinsky taishi. He repeatedly went to St. Petersburg to carry out responsible missions as an authorized representative of the Khorin Buryats: in 1872-1873. with a petition to the government to suspend the destruction of Buddhist places of worship, in 1879.took a trip on land issues.

After the approval of the new regulations on Buddhists of Eastern Siberia dated March 13, 1853, 285 priests were designated as full-time lamas, and together with novices - 320 out of 4509 lamas, the remaining lamas were transferred to a secular state. Despite the loyal sentiments of the nobility of the Khorinsky Buryats, persecution of Buddhists began in tsarist Russia. Under the personal control of the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia , N. P. Sinelnikov, since 1872, religious objects (prayer oboosboomkhans ) of Buddhist temples were abolished and destroyed. Because of the persecution of Buddhists and the unseemly actions of Russian missionaries and baptized Buryats, who burned Buddhist religious buildings, unrest and discontent with the actions of the East Siberian authorities began among the people.

At the Sejm of the Khorinsky Buryats, it was decided to send a deputation to Emperor Alexander II to state their complaints. Sh. - N. Khobituev was unanimously elected as the head of the delegation. He left on July 24, 1872, and arrived in St. Petersburg on September 12. Other petitioners to the authorities include Damba Vamboev, a trustee from Buryat Selenga families who speaks Russian, Shagdur Mintaev, a trustee from 15 families, Norbo Ochirov, and teacher Zhalsarai Zoriktuev as an interpreter. In St. Petersburg, the Buryat walkers lived on the Ital-

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Yanskaya Street of the Liteyny Part, in the house N 6. Alexander II did not personally accept them, but the request of the Buryats was brought to his attention. The petition stated that due to the fact that "local civil authorities are obstructing the religion they profess, they request that it be referred to His Majesty the Emperor for gracious permission, so that they can henceforth freely practice their religion" [LKHB, 1940, pp. 84-91]. The delegation of Sh. - N. Khobituev managed to convince the government of the wrong actions of the local Siberian authorities, to get the condemnation of the policy of the Governor-General and the removal of all restrictions on the Buryat religion. The delegation returned home in October 1873. Later, Sh. - N. Khobituyev also actively participated in the settlement of land conflicts with Russian settlers.

At the request of Prince E. E. Ukhtomsky, Sh.- N. Khobituev, who was inspecting the situation of Buddhists in Eastern Siberia on behalf of the Department of Foreign Faiths of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, wrote a chronicle of the Khori-Buryats in 1887. In 1872, Sh.- N. Khobituev, together with the Agin teacher Zhalsarai Zoriktuev, visited Vienna at the World Exhibition.

In 1935, the chronicle of Sh. - N. Khobitueva was published in Old Mongolian script by V. A. Kazakevich in the second issue of "Chronicles of the Khorinsky Buryats" without notes and commentary. Unfortunately, the remarkable work of the Buryat chronicler, which contains interesting facts about the history of Khori-Buryats, has not yet been translated into Russian and is not fully used by historians, linguists, and cultural scientists.

It is important to note that in the work of Sh.- N. Khobituyev, events and facts are presented in strictly chronological order. In this chronicle, as in the chronicle of V. Yumsunov, the genealogy of the Tibetan and Mongolian khans is traced. The interesting thing is that Sh. - N. Khobituev, pointing out the names of the famous 11 sons of Khoridai, the legendary ancestor of the Khorin Buryats, mentions the names of two more sons-Qayitul and Cingnud. According to the chronicler, Qayitul and Cingnud moved to the other side of Lake Baikal and joined the Buryats living in those places, and later their 11 sons became the ancestors of 11 Khorinsky clans. They were subjects of the Mongol khans and led a nomadic lifestyle. The limits of their nomadic communities extended from the shores of Lake Baikal to the sources of the Amur River (LKHB, 1935, issue 2, p. 10). It seems that the names Qayitul and Cingnud can be associated with the Buryat genonyms khaytal and sagenuud. These Buryat clans are found among the Ekhirit tribe, although they are not genetically related to it. In addition, representatives of the Khaital and Sagenuud genera are also found among the Baikal-Kudara, Olkhon, and Barguzin Buryats, as well as among the Barguts. In particular, according to informant Huasai Dugarzhab from Shene Barga (China), among theshene-bargutov meets the genus Huhe khaytal.

Tugultur Toboev writes in his essay: "From the last wife [of Khoridai-mergen] Nagatai gave birth to eight sons, but two of them died at a young age, as a result of which their names are unknown " [LKHB, 1940, p. 15]. This is also mentioned by Vandan Yumsunov (LKHB, 1940, p.44). The Anonymous Chronicle of Khorin notes that Qoyital and Congyod "remained on the former Mongolian land at a young age" ("baya nasun-dayan urida mongyul yajara tasurju...") [AHL, 1903, p.2]. As Tsydendambayev notes, the "Atsagat essay on the Khori-Buryats" mentions that ".. in addition, there were also Haital and Tsongot, who remained among the Tumet. The descendants of 11 sons of Khori live in Khori and Are, some of them - among the Buryats of Irkutsk volost, Barguzin and Selenga, as well as among the Barguts called shine-bargu (or Buryat-bargu)" (Tsydendambaev, 1972, p.79).

Perhaps we are talking about two Khorin clans that split off from the main mass of Khori-Buryats. As is known from chronicle sources, part of the Khorinsky Buryats

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They were subjects of the Solongut Bubei-beil-bator, then they became subjects of his son Dai-khun-taiji, when Balzhin-khatun from Tumet aimag married him in 1587. After Baljin-khatun did not get along with the young wife of Bubei-beile Khan, Dai-khun-taiji, along with Baljin-khatun and some of his subjects-11 Khorin families - secretly migrated to the north in 1594. After the establishment of the Russian-Chinese border, a part of the Khorin Buryats remained in China under the name Shene-bargu, or Barga-Buryats. The historical memory of the people has not preserved information about the genetic roots of their ethnic group, so the Shene-Barguts do not identify themselves with the Khori-Buryats. But the chronicle monuments testify to the ancient ties of the Barguts and Buryats. Moreover, according to Galjuud Tubsinnima, a researcher of the Barghut ethnogenesis from the PRC, the history of the Barghuts cannot be considered separately from the history of the Buryats (Yaljuud Tubsinnima, 1983, p.55).

Chronicle of Sh. - N. Khobitueva is the most popular of the Buryat chronicles. There are various lists and continuations of it, brought up to 1909. (compiled by Ayusha Ochirov), before 1913. (compiled by Solo Vandanov), before 1920, before 1923 (written by Rabzha Sanzhiev). In addition to the well-known facts, it describes such events as the work of members of the State Secretary Kulomzin's commission (1896) in Siberia to familiarize themselves with the resettlement business, the measures taken by the tsarist authorities to attract vehicles in connection with preparations for the Russo-Japanese war and during the war, and the Dalai Lama's stay in Mongolia in 1904-1908. the pilgrimage of Buryat elders and lamas to Mongolia; the flight from Inner Mongolia to Asu of a rebel detachment led by Togtokho in 1910; the separation of Outer Mongolia from China and the formation of the Mongolian State in 1911; the activities of local deputies in the II and III State Dumas; the trip of the Buryat delegation to St. Petersburg to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanovs in 1913; sending Buryat youth to the rear during the First World War; The February Revolution of 1917.; conscription into the army; expulsion of Semenov and Kappelev members; history of the rebel detachment led by Dugar Tapkhaev; creation of the Far Eastern Republic and the Autonomous Region of Buryat in 1920. All these materials are of great interest from the point of view of both attracting facts and reflecting the chroniclers ' own views on the history of their people. Later extensions of the chronicle of Sh.- N. Khobituyev are also known: some local historians keep chronicles of their families at the present time.

According to the researchers, there are other unknown chronicles stored in the family archives. For example, the archive of D. Z. Zandanova, wife of R. Radnaev 1, from the Tsagan family, a native of the village of Tsagan-Ol, Mogoitui district, Chita region, contains a manuscript of the anonymous Khorin chronicle " Qori buriyad-un quriyangyui teuke "("A Brief History of the Khori-Buryats"), completed in 1903. This manuscript is a list of previously unknown "Short History of Khori-Buryats" written in Old Mongolian script.

The volume of the manuscript is 17 copybooks. There is a colophon in which the scribe Gotab Rinchino 2 indicated: "This history of the Khorinsky Buryats is rewritten from an old manuscript, but the manuscript is illegible in some places, so when reading it, you need to make corrections for the context. When and by whom the original was written is unknown. March 31, 1972" [Badmayeva, 2000, p. 7].

1 Radnaev Rinchin (1918-1975) - former chairman of the V. I. Lenin collective farm, a native of the village of Zugalai, Mogoitui district, Chita region, from the togtor huatsai family.

2 According to Ts. B. Balzhinimaeva, born in 1924, from the tsagan malgai huatsai family, a native of the village of Zugalai, Mogoitui district, Chita region, Gotab Rinchino had a Buddhist spiritual order.

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The history of the Khorinsky Buryats is presented in five numbered and titled sections:

1-deki: Erten-u mongyul-un Qoridoi mergen-ece undusulen 11 obuytun boluysan-u juyil (About how earlier 11 genera originated from the Mongolian Khoridoi mergen);

2-daki: Orus-un qayan-u albatu bolju oruysan juyil (About how the Khorinsky Buryats became subjects of the Russian emperor);

3-daki: Ene orun-du oruju albatu boluysan cay-aca qoyisi alin jorge olan boluysan-u juyil (About how and by how much they have increased since they became subjects of this country [Russia]);

4-deki: Erten-u Baraγu baγatur Dayicing noyon kemeku-yin jirum-iyar tayisa-a kemeku noyon-tai boluysan juyil (About how the position of taisha was approved in accordance with the ancient tradition of Baragu-Bator-Daitsin noyon);

5-daki: Orus-un qayan-u albatu bolun tusigsen-ece inayci yayyakin bayiysan-u juyil (About how the Khorin Buryats, who became subjects of the Russian tsar, lived and still live today).

The first section says that Khoridoy-mergen, the youngest son of the Mongol Baragu-Bator-Daitsin-noyon, had three wives: Barguzhin-gokhon, Sharal-dai and Nagatai. From the first wife of Barguzhin-gokhon, one daughter was born-Alun-goa or Arigun-gokhon (Bur. Aryun-gokhon), the second wife gave birth to five sons: Galzut, Huatsai, Hubdut, Guchit, Sharayt; Nagatai - six sons: Hargan, Khudai, Bodongut, Halbin, Tsagan and Batunai. In addition, Khoytal (Qoy-ital/Qoyidal) and Congyod (Congyod) are also mentioned, who "at a young age remained on the former Mongolian land" [AHL, 1903, p. 2].

In the second section, the author provides data that coincide with fragments from the "Narrative of Balzhin-Khatun" (1760-1770), the first historical chronicle of the Khorinsky Buryats, which the Buryat chroniclers invariably referred to as one of their authoritative sources. Thus, the author of an anonymous chronicle writes: "orus-un 1600 tuqai on-du Dai-Quung-taiji onoki ober-un / Baljin qatun ber degereki 11 obuytun ulus-iyan abcu / Barayu Mongyul-un yajar-aca barayun qoyitu jug-i qandaju / Onon morun-u urida tala-yin yajara Kukulbi-yin kobci-yin / eber geju nutuy-tu negun ireju sayubai " ("In the 1600s"). Dai-khun-taiji with his Baljin-khatun and his subjects of 11 clans from Bargu-Mongo-lii went to the northwest and migrated to the front side of the Onon River and settled on the southern slope of the Khukhulba mountain range") [AHL, 1903, p. 5]. Further, the author gives the date of the entry of the Khorin people into the Khu-Khatun region. Russian citizenship: "... 1640 yar'un on-u uy-e-du orus-un qayan-du tusiju alba-tu bolun oruju Nersuu-yin juryandu qamjibai: Tun alba toluku cidal-tai ulus-iyan toyalaju 160 tuqai ere sayyadaytan bolju 20-20 monggu-ber alba tolugsen ("In 1640In the 1940s, they accepted Russian citizenship and became part of the Nerchinsk Department. They counted people who were able to pay taxes, there were 160 men who began to pay tribute at 20 kopecks each" [AHL, 1903, p. 7].

Unlike the "Chronicle of Baljin-Khatun" and other Horin chronicles, this text contains a rather detailed account of the tragic fate of one of the leaders of the Horin clans, Shilde-zangi, who, after the establishment of the Russian-Chinese border (1727-1728), found himself with his subjects on the territory of the Manchu Empire. According to the author of an anonymous chronicle, in the 1730s, Shilde-zangi and his 800 relatives, wanting to return to their native lands, wanted to cross the border, but was captured and brutally executed. Here is also one of the variants of heroic songs about Shildei-zangi.

As noted by the well-known researcher of Buryat folklore M. I. Tulokhonov, "Legends and songs about Shilde Zangi are common among Buryats, in contrast to earlier historical songs, almost everywhere, regardless of tribal affiliation. They have become truly folk works, reflecting the general moods and thoughts in the world.

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the period of intensive development of the consolidation of clans and tribes" [Tulokhonov, 1973, p. 128].

Chronicle records indicate that Shildei-zangi belonged to the galzut genus, subgenus zhinkhan khukhur [LKHB, 1935, issue 1, p. 116]; Sh. - N. Khobituev notes that Shildei-zangi was a close relative of the famous zaisan Shodo Boltorikov [LKHB, 1935, issue 2, p. 19; BTB, 1992, p. 99].

In the story of Balzhin-Khatun there is an episode concerning the history of the establishment of the Russian-Chinese border. Messengers were sent to the Shildei-zangi with the message that they were going to establish a border between the two empires and that they urgently needed to move back. In response, Shilday-zangi sent a messenger to Shodo Boltorikov with an allegorical message: "If you want to saddle, take six black horses with you, if you want to load, take a golden saddle with you." After hearing tonts-zasul's message, Shodo Boltorikov did not understand its hidden meaning, mistaking its direct context for bragging, and did not take any action [BTB, 1992, p.226].

The meaning of the encrypted message of Shildei-zangi was that he asked Shodo Boltorikov, who took an active part in establishing the Russian-Chinese border as a guide and translator, to determine the limits of the territory of the Russian empire so that it included the ancestral lands of the bargu-Buryat nomads, former subjects of Bubei-beile Khan, who settled on the river Hara-morito (doel. "black-horned"), in the area of Altan emel (Golden Saddle).

This episode is presented in the anonymous chronicle of Khorin with some discrepancies. A message was sent to Shildei-zangi with instructions: until the border milestones are finally established, 11 Horin families should move to their ancestral lands. In response, Shilday-zangi sends an allegorical message: "If you need a horse, take a black horse; if you need a saddle, take a golden saddle" [AHL, 1903, p. 9]. Sh. Boltorikov managed to decipher the meaning of the secret message of Shilday-zangi: hara morin (black horse) means the name of the river Hara muren, altan emel (golden saddle) means the name of the mountain. These areas were located 160 km from the proposed border. People were secretly sent to explore the indicated places, they even left their notes on a white stone, but it turned out that Chinese officials were ahead of them and determined the borders of their empire along the banks of the Hara Muren River (Amur). A few years later, Shildei-zangi, realizing that his plan had failed, raised his family (800 people) and secretly went to the Russian-Chinese border in order to reunite with his fellow tribesmen. They managed to cross the border safely, but they were detained by the Russian authorities and Shilday-zangi was captured and executed right on the border to intimidate those who violated it without permission.

Legends and songs about Shildei-zangi reflect the tragedy of the Khorin Buryats, who by the will of fate found themselves within different states (Russia, Mongolia and China) as a result of the separation of Russian and Chinese lands without taking into account the original places of the Khori-Buryat nomads. These songs reflect the bitterness and regret of the people for the brothers and sisters who were left on the wrong side.

In the third section of his essay, the author writes that when the Khorinsky Buryats became subjects of Russia, they numbered 160 male souls who were able to pay taxes. And in 1838, the number of men and women of the Khorinsky families was 84,483 people located in the Nerchinsky and Verkhneudinsky counties, of which 762 people were lamas and novices.

The fourth section of the chronicle refers to the introduction of the position of taishi as the main leader among the Buryat clans. This institution was approved, as the author notes, by a royal decree of June 4, 1732.

page 25

In the fifth section of this monument, an episode is of interest, which testifies to the beginnings of tillage among the Khorin people. The author of the chronicle points out that in order to ease the economic situation of the Khorinsky Buryats, Empress Catherine II in 1792 allocated plows, sickles, seeds, etc.from the treasury for the introduction of tillage.

In general, the structure of the text of the anonymous chronicle of Khorin is quite logical and consistent. The narration is conducted in accordance with the historical events that took place in the life of the Khorinsky Buryats. Researchers of the Buryat chronicles have long noted that "it is still necessary to recognize their inherent advantage of chronologically consistent presentation of at least some events of the Buryat-Mongolian history proper, about a significant part of which we now even have no idea "[Vostrikov and Poppe, 1935, p. 6].

The anonymous Buryat chronicle, which dates back to 1903, is of interest as a reflection of the Buryats ' understanding of their own history, because it was not influenced by the concepts of Mongolian and Russian historiography.

Artistic features attract attention: tropes, vocabulary of the work, the composition of the narrative. Unlike other authors, the anonymous chronicler cites epithets describing the images of the wives and daughters of Khoridoi-mergan: "Baryujin youqan anu mon barayun jug-tin you-a ujeskuleng-tu sayiqan ekener aysan..." ("Bargujin-gohon was a lovely, beautiful woman of the west side"); "Saraldai anu sara carai-tai ekener bayiysan" ("Sharaldai was a fair-faced person"); "3-duyar Nayatai anu ayiqubtar nayadatai cengeglig ekener aysan" ("Nagatai's 3rd wife was a very playful, cheerful woman"about Alun-goa, he writes as follows: "Degereki Baryujin youqan-aca torugsen bacayan-i mon yeke mergen ceber bayidal-tai ba tegun-u bey-e maqabud tegci you-a sayiqan kumun aysan tula Ariyun youqan geju nerlegsen bolai" ("Born from the above Bargujin-gohon, the daughter was very wise, clean in everyday life, healthy in body and beautiful, so they called her Arigun-gohon") [AHL, 1903, p. 3]. Bur. aruun, mong. ariun, stp. - Mong. ariyun-sacred, holy, noble, chaste, pure, immaculate [BAMRS, vol. I, 2001, pp. 148-149]; bur. gohon (beauty), Mong. gua, old mong. you-a - beautiful, red, beautiful, pretty, cute, comely, interesting, comely [BAMRS, vol. I, 2001-2002, p. 448].

The chronicle "Anonymous Brief History of the Khori Buryats" is an interesting source not only for historical, literary, and linguistic research, but also for cultural studies.

Image of an outstanding public figure of the XIX century. Tugultur Toboeva and the chronicle written by him inspired the writer Batozhab Tsybikov to create a historical novel in two parts "Tugelder taishaa "(Taisha Tugelder), (1998). The heroic image of Shildei-zangi is described in the poem C-D. Dondokova "Shilday-zangi". The historical drama "Balzhan-Khatan" by Dorji Erdyneev is based on the "Legend of Balzhin-Khatun". The historical memory of the people returns to the present through the past, enriching it, and rushes to the future.

list of literature

Badmaeva L. B. Structure of the text of the Anonymous Khorinsky Chronicle II Actual problems of the Buryat language, Literature, and History (To the 10th anniversary of the Department of Buryat Philology of ISU). Irkutsk, 2000.

Large Academic Mongolian-Russian Dictionary (BAMRS). Vol. 1. Ed. by G. Ts. Pyurbeev, Moscow, 2001.

Buryaad Tnen. 28.07.1993.

Buryaadai tuuhe basheguud (Buryat Historical Chronicles) (BTB). Compiled by Sh. B. Chimitdorzhiev. Ula-an-Ude, 1992.

Buryats. Edited by L. L. Abaeva and N. L. Zhukovskaya, Moscow, 2004.

page 26

Vostrikov A. I., Poppe N. N. Chronicles of the Barguzin Buryats. Issue 1. Texts and research // Proceedings of the Institute of Oriental Studies. Vol. VIII. M.-L., 1935.

Дугарнимаев Ц. А. Буряад уран зохеолой туухын баримтанууд. (Materials on the history of Buryat literature). Ulan-Ude Publ., 1986.

Chronicles of the Khorinsky Buryats (LKHB), Vol. 1. Chronicles of Tugultur Toboev and Vandan Yumsunov. The text was published by N. N. Poppe; Issue 2. Chronicle of Shirab-Nimbo Hobituev. The text was published by V. A. Kazakevich / / Proceedings of the Institute of Oriental Studies. Vol. IX. M.-L., 1935.

Chronicles of the Khorinsky Buryats (KHB). Chronicles of Tugultur Toboev and Vandan Yumsunov. Translated by N. N. Poppe / / Proceedings of the Institute of Oriental Studies. Vol. XXXIII. M.-L., 1940.

Tolon (Ray of light). 14.09.1991.

Tulokhonov M. I. Buryat historical songs. Ulan-Ude, 1973.

Tsydendambaev Ts. B. Buryat historical chronicles and pedigrees. Ulan-Ude, 1972.

Bawden Ch. R. English Mission Schools among the Buryats, 1822 - 1840 // Zentralasiatische Studien. Vol. 16. Wiesbaden, 1982.

Yaljuud Tubsinnima. Baryucud-un teuke irelte (Galzut Tubshinnima. To the history of the Barguts). Obur Mongyul-un soyol-un keblel-un qoriy-a. Qayilar, 1983 (Publishing House of the Department of Culture of Inner Mongolia. Hailar, 1983).

Qori buriyad-un quriyangyui tettke (A brief history of the Khori-Buryats) / / Anonymous Horin Chronicle (AHL). 1903. The manuscript.


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