Libmonster ID: KZ-2245
Author(s) of the publication: T. G. TERENTYEVA

T. G. TERENTYEVA

Far East Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Keywords: export of capital, investment, accumulated direct investment, construction contract, leasing

One of the most important factors in the rapid growth of the Chinese economy over the past decade was the very successful implementation of the state strategy "Going Abroad". For the first time, Jiang Zemin officially announced the new strategy at the 1st session of the 9th National People's Congress (February 1998). In his speech, he stated: "At the same time as the active expansion of exports, it is necessary to systematically organize and support the export of state-owned enterprises with the necessary potential and resources. They should be encouraged to make investments and set up businesses abroad. 1

Favorable conditions for the successful implementation of this strategy have been possible since 2001, after China's accession to the WTO, as was officially stated by the then Prime Minister Zhu Rongji: "The implementation of the' Go abroad 'policy is becoming one of the main tasks of the Chinese economy." 2

The importance of developing this area of foreign economic policy was repeatedly confirmed by his successor Wen Jiabao, who in 2006 adopted the first document in the country's history setting out the norms and principles of foreign investment in the country.

The state strategy "Going abroad" has become one of the priorities of all subsequent five-year development plans of China (2001 - 2005, 2006 - 2010, 2011 - 2015). Undoubtedly, the growth of foreign investment is promoted by the policy of the Chinese government, which encourages the export of capital that meets the conditions and objectives of the country's economic development. The active participation of the state in the export of capital is a feature of Chinese foreign investment. The state is directly involved in creating favorable conditions for the export of capital: the relevant legal framework is developed and improved; an increasing number of participants are allowed and their activity abroad is stimulated; the parameters of capital export, including the scale and main directions of investment flows, are determined.

DYNAMICS OF EXPANDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR FOREIGN INVESTMENT

In recent years, the main and most significant legislative changes that have significantly expanded the opportunities of Chinese investors include the following::

- In 2006, the State Council of the People's Republic of China adopted a decree allowing Chinese companies to attract bank loans in national and foreign currency to finance foreign investment projects. The issuance of permits to raise borrowed funds, as well as the scope of application of loans, were strictly regulated. First of all, projects related to the development of natural resources abroad, increasing the export of equipment, technologies and goods produced in China, creating new production facilities (enterprises, workshops) abroad, acquiring foreign assets and participating in the share capital of foreign companies were supported;

- in 2007, a regulation was adopted that allowed Chinese companies investing abroad to keep all their foreign currency earnings (before that, all enterprises were required to sell at least 20% of their foreign currency earnings to the state). Enterprises were given the opportunity to independently decide on the use of earned capital;

- Since May 2009, the "Rules on the Control of Investment Activities Abroad" came into force, which simplified the procedure for approving investment projects of Chinese companies abroad.

According to the " Rules...", the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China reserved the right to approve projects in the following cases::

- if investments are made in countries that do not have diplomatic relations with China (there are currently about 30 countries and territories, mainly in Africa, Oceania and Central America);

- investments are made in countries or territories that are on a special list established by the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China (currently in it

page 11

Table 1

Total volume of accumulated Chinese investments abroad (at the beginning of 2014)

 

$ billion

%

All investments

2107,8

100

incl.: direct investment

660,5

31,3

Portfolio investments

258,5

12,3

Other investments*

1188,8

56,4



* Includes trade loans, other loans, and bank deposits.

Source: Xinhua News Agency, 4.04.2014.

these include Afghanistan, Iraq, and Taiwan);

- when the investment volume exceeds $100 million;

- the implementation of investments by the enterprise affects the interests of several states (territories);

- projects are related to the financial sphere of activity.

Provincial commerce departments approve investment projects if: the amount of investment by the Chinese side is $10-100 million; the company invests in energy or mineral extraction; investment requires finding partners in the territory of the People's Republic of China.

NEW RULES

New rules (2009) establish a simplified procedure for registering investment projects in the amount of up to $10 million. (applications are submitted for approval to the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China or provincial-level commerce departments; after three business days, an investor certificate is issued, which is valid for two years.) With the introduction of the new regulations, about 85% of all investment applications are approved at the provincial level.3

At present, the "Go Abroad" strategy remains one of the main directions of China's foreign economic policy, the importance of which is always confirmed at the congresses and plenums of the CPC Central Committee held in the country.

The 3rd Plenum of the CPC Central Committee of the 18th convocation (November 23-25, 2013) is particularly notable for the importance of the adopted documents of recent years. The key decision of the Plenum is primarily related to "recognizing the decisive role of the market in the allocation of resources", which should become the main regulator in the further development of the country's economy. Another innovation is related to "the need to promote equality of rights, opportunities and regulation of the public and private sectors, removing unjustified barriers to private enterprises", which should lead to the expansion of the role of private capital as an important element of the country's economic growth.

Following the results of the Plenary Session, a resolution "On some important issues of comprehensive deepening of reforms"was adopted. It was stated that this decree until 2020 will serve as a "program document of the People's Republic of China at a new historical point of development."

The resolution contains 16 sections. Proposals related to the further development of the "Going Abroad" strategy are presented in the section "Foreign Economic Policy" (it contains 8 items, 5 of which are more or less related to external investment).

The Plenary Session identified the following 5 priority areas of the strategy.

FIRST DIRECTION

"Increasing foreign investment by Chinese enterprises and individuals making investments abroad."

The export of capital for China has become such an important component of foreign economic activity that without it it is now impossible to imagine further successful development of the country's economy.

Foreign investment primarily solves three major tasks: 1-acquisition of modern technologies; 2-access to minerals (the investment component allows China to be less independent from global raw material markets); 3-search for new markets for its exports.

The growth of Chinese investment is supported by the presence of huge gold and foreign exchange reserves in the country, which reached $3.82 trln4 at the end of 2013, which allows the PRC to increase the volume of external investment.

As can be seen from Table 1, the total volume of accumulated investments of all types abroad has already exceeded $2 trillion.

Most of China's accumulated investment comes from loans and bank deposits, accounting for $1,188. 8 billion, or 56.4% of the total. China significantly expanded lending to foreign countries after the global financial crisis, when many countries faced problems related to a lack of liquidity.

Lending has become an important element of China's policy of engaging with countries rich in natural resources. This approach has been particularly successful in Africa, and in recent years loans have also been actively extended to Central Asian countries.

Most of the loans issued facilitate the conclusion of long-term transactions, primarily in the energy sector. For example, credit lines are being opened with oil-producing countries on the principle of "oil in exchange for loans". The largest ones include signed agreements on granting loans for long-term loans at the following rates:-

page 12

Table 2

China's direct investment abroad and its share in the world ($ billion)

 

2002

2005

2008

2010

2012

2013

Export of direct investment in the world*

485,1

646,2

1826

1323

1347

1411

Export of Chinese direct investment

2,7

12,3

55,9

68,8

87,8

107,8

China's share in the world (%)

0,6

1,9

3,1

5,2

6,5

7,6

China's place in the world*

 

17

11

5

3

3



* Based on the UNCTAD World Investment Reports for the relevant years.

Source: Zhongguo tongji nianjian (Chinese Statistical Yearbook) with data for the corresponding years.

oil rates with Russia at $25 billion. (Rosneft - $15 billion and Transneft - $10 billion), Brazil - $10 billion, Venezuela - $4 billion, Angola - $5 billion. and Kazakhstan - also for $5 billion 5.

According to research conducted by the Financial Times (the findings are based on official statements from banks about specific transactions, as well as statements from representatives of foreign firms, states, and the Chinese government), for 2009-2010. China has extended more loans to developing countries ($110 billion) than the World Bank ($100 billion) .6

The second place in the structure is occupied by direct investments, the volume of which reached $660.5 billion. (or 31.3%). Direct investment, even if only a part (more than 10%) of the share capital is owned, ensures the actual control of the enterprise by the investor. For China, direct investment is particularly important, as it provides access to both new technologies and direct access to mineral deposits. According to this indicator, China still lags significantly behind the largest developed countries (in 2013 - on the 3rd place)7, which is 10.2% of the indicator of the United States; 29.4%-Great Britain; 34.4% - Germany 8.

From 2002 to 2014, the volume of Chinese direct investment (excluding the financial sector) abroad increased from $2.7 billion. up to 102.9 billion, i.e. more than 38 times 9. At the end of 2013, Chinese investments were present in 184 countries and regions of the world, there were 25.4 thousand enterprises with Chinese participation.10

All this indicates an unprecedented increase in China's foreign direct investment, which is another feature of the country's capital exports.

As an exporter of capital, China is becoming an increasingly important player in the global financial market. The rapid growth of investment flows abroad allowed China to significantly improve its position both in terms of its share in the global volume of direct investment (from 0.6% in 2002 to 7.6% in 2013) and in the ranking of the world's largest investors (from 17th place in 2005 to 3rd in 2012 and 2013).).

As can be seen from Table 3, China is currently second only to the United States and Japan in terms of direct investment.

As before, one of the most important areas of China's external investment flows is the extractive industry, which occupies the 3rd place in the industry structure. As the economy grows, China's dependence on external sources of raw materials increases, especially for oil supplies. So, in 2013, China imported 280 million rubles from abroad.

Table 3

Major direct investment exporting countries (2013 results)

Countries

$billion

%

Total

1411

100

among them:
1. USA

338

24,0

2. Japan

136

9,6

3. China

108

7,6

4. Russia

95

6.7

5. Hong Kong, China

92

6,5

6. Switzerland

60

4,3

7. Canada

43

3,0

8. The Netherlands

37

2,6

9. Sweden

33

2,3

10. Italy

32

2,3



Источник: UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2014. United Nations. N.Y. and Geneva, 2014.

page 13

million tons of oil, which accounted for 58.1% of the total volume of oil consumed for the year. According to Yun Teng, Deputy Director of the Institute for International Cooperation under the State Council of the People's Republic of China, China's dependence on oil supplies from abroad may grow to 66% by 2020.11 Therefore, as a rule, China's largest investment transactions abroad are still associated with mining and, most often, with oil projects.

The largest transaction of 2012 was the purchase by the China National Offshore Petroleum Corporation (CNOOC, the third largest national oil and gas company of China) of the Canadian oil company Nexen Inc. for $15.1 billion. On December 7, 2012, the Government of Canada authorized the CNOOC application. The deal was approved by the US and UK governments, which was the last barrier facing the Chinese company*.

The acquisition of Canada's Nexen will allow CNOOC, which has assets in Canada, Nigeria, the Gulf of Mexico and the United Kingdom, to diversify its operations in the global market.

Taking into account the global integration processes, as well as the growing needs for the development of the national economy, the export of capital remains a priority direction of the "Going Abroad" policy.

SECOND DIRECTION

"It is necessary to provide freedom in the implementation of engineering and construction contracts and the provision of labor services abroad."

The Decree pays such attention to construction and contracting activities abroad for a reason. In recent years, the industry's annual revenues exceed $100 billion. According to the Statistics Bureau of the People's Republic of China, revenue from foreign construction contracts totaled $137 billion in 2013.

The industry is in a dynamic growth stage. From 2006 to the present, the volume of work has been growing, on average, by 20% per year. The International Contractors Association of China estimates that the volume of construction projects abroad increased by 15% in 2014 compared to 2013.12

Chinese companies in the global construction market have achieved significant success, turning into large construction holdings that already correspond to the level of multinational corporations. So, in 2012, according to the International Construction magazine, 5 Chinese companies were among the top ten largest construction companies in the world in terms of annual revenues.

The turnover of the largest of them, China State Construction & Engineering, for the year amounted to $72.6 billion. In total, 52 Chinese companies are included in the ranking of the world's 225 largest international contractors.13 However, if we compare construction holdings in terms of efficiency (annual revenue per employee), not a single Chinese company is included in the top 10 rating (the first three places in the list are occupied by Japanese firms).

Currently, there are more than 3,000 companies in China that are licensed to carry out external contracting activities, and their number is steadily growing (in 2005, there were just over 1,700). They implement more than 4,000 construction projects in more than 180 countries and regions of the world, of which about 400 projects are considered large, with contracts worth more than $100 million, including 15 projects exceeding $1 billion.

The main customers for the Chinese are traditionally Asian countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Middle East countries-Qatar, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. China's presence in Africa has increased significantly 14.

China's largest market in terms of construction projects is Hong Kong, which accounts for about 20% of the amount of contracts awarded. The second largest is Singapore, which has a 10% share. In the medium term, the market of African countries will remain an important area of China's construction contracts (up to 40% of all contracts on the African continent are held by Chinese construction holdings), as well as Latin American countries.

In the process of developing external contract construction, there is a steady increase in the competitiveness of Chinese enterprises in the international market. This is evidenced by the steadily increasing number of tenders won, as well as the growing number of projects worth more than $100 million (in 2000, the number of such tenders was 9, in 2005 - already 49). The contract value of the largest project in 2000 averaged about $500 million, and in 2005 a contract worth $6.25 billion was signed15.

This project on the world market is still one of the most expensive in terms of the transaction amount. The contract was signed with Algeria and is related to the construction of the West - East expressway. The tender for construction was won as a result of competition with the largest European and American design companies. One of the main factors that makes Chinese companies win tenders for contracts is price.

Over the past decade, the typical model of a Chinese contract has changed significantly:

- the technological level has significantly increased, which is associated with the expansion of the scope of activities of Chinese enterprises. If initially the main objects were concentrated in labor-intensive industries and are associated with such types of work as the construction of buildings and road engineering structures, recently most of the projects relate to knowledge-intensive areas - electric power, metallurgy, petrochemicals, telecommunications, etc.;

- if earlier Chinese construction companies were positioned on the world market exclusively as national companies, recently the number of companies formed abroad through mergers and acquisitions has been growing;


* Approval from the US and UK authorities was required because Nexen controls significant assets in the Gulf of Mexico and North Sea.

page 14

Table 4

Volume of Chinese direct investment abroad by industry

Industries

2008

2010

2013

Accumulated at the end of 2013

 

$billion

%

$ billion

%

$ billion

%

$ billion

Total

55,9

100

68,8

100

107,8

100

660,5

Of these, by industry:
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

0,2

0,4

0,5

0,1

1,8

1,7

7,2

Extractive industries

5,8

10,4

5,7

8,3

24,8

22,7

106,2

Manufacturing industries

1,8

3,2

4,7

6,8

7,2

6,6

42,0

Construction

0,7

1,3

1,6

2,3

4,4

4,1

19,4

Transport, warehousing, and mail

2,7

4,8

5,7

8,3

3,3

3,1

32,2

Wholesale and retail trade

6,5

11,6

6,7

9,7

14,6

13,5

87,6

Leasing services

21,7

38,8

30,3

44,0

27,1

25,1

195,7

Financial sector

14,0

25,0

8,6

12,5

15,1

14,0

117,1



Source: Zhongguo tongji nianjian (Chinese Statistical Yearbook) with data for the corresponding years.

- the number of companies with an investment component has grown significantly. If 10 years ago Chinese companies represented only construction activities, now they are modern holdings that actively conduct investment activities, already representing financial and construction and industrial and construction integrated structures.

According to the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, in 2012, 80% of construction work abroad was carried out under the terms of the general contract, "turnkey"16, and this implies not only the full volume of development, but also compliance with the international level of quality.

As can be seen from Table 4, the share of construction in the export structure of Chinese direct investment is insignificant and amounts to only $4.4 billion, or 4.1% of the total volume, according to the results of 2013, which corresponds to the 6th place in the industry structure. At the same time, they are characterized by high growth rates (in two years there was about a twofold increase in investment volumes related to construction).

In the accumulated direct investments, their volume is also insignificant - $19.4 billion, or 2.9%.

However, the investment component of China's construction activities abroad is also present in such areas as leasing (in terms of leasing services, China is one of the largest in the world). First of all, this is due to the provision of construction equipment for leasing by Chinese companies. For foreign construction of various types of facilities, China usually uses only equipment produced in the country (this condition is prescribed in contracts).

Construction is projected to continue to grow in the industry structure of China's foreign direct investment. According to a joint report by Global Construction Perspectives and Oxford Economics, China will increase its share of the global construction industry market to 20% by 2020 17.

The second important component of this direction is the provision of labor services abroad. Construction contracting and labor services in China are closely interlinked: about 80% of Chinese citizens working abroad are involved in the construction industry. In 2013, 527 thousand people were sent abroad under employment contracts.18

The export of labor in China helps solve a number of domestic problems: the burden on the domestic labor market is reduced; the professional and qualification level of Chinese workers traveling abroad is improved; and the welfare of families of employees who have a contract to work abroad is improved.

For the successful implementation of this direction, it was important to simplify the procedure for obtaining a permit for the provision of labor services and performing contract work abroad. On August 1, 2012, the Regulation "On the Management of International Labor Cooperation" came into force.-

page 15

pto" (Decree of the State Council of the People's Republic of China No. 620) 19, which regulates the main issues related to hiring employees to send them to work abroad, which has already led to an increased number of workers who have left.

THIRD DIRECTION

"Speeding up work on concluding agreements on the promotion and mutual protection of investments with other States".

Intergovernmental agreements on the promotion and mutual protection of investments are aimed at resolving all issues that arise before the parties during the investment process. They record the willingness of partner States to create favorable conditions for investment by the other side, and they are guaranteed full and unconditional legal protection. As a rule, in such agreements, more than 50% of the items are related to guarantees provided to the investor country.

As of April 2013*, China has concluded mutual investment protection agreements with 90 countries (the Agreement between Russia and China was ratified in 2009), including 20 with Taiwan.

Recently, the problem of protecting its foreign investments has become very urgent for China. First of all, this applies to the countries of Africa, where political, ethnic, and inter-confessional instability is particularly frequent.

China has signed mutual investment protection agreements with 28 African countries. China has suffered the greatest investment losses in recent years in Libya and Sudan. So, according to the representative of the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China, " Chinese companies operating in Libya, due to the unrest in the country, suffered damage estimated at $18.8 billion. About 30 thousand people had to be evacuated. Chinese engineers and workers engaged in the construction, construction of telecommunications facilities and hydraulic structures, as well as in the oil-producing sector " 21.

China has implemented 50 projects in Libya, involving 75 major Chinese companies. In Sudan, as a result of the division of the country into two territorial state entities in 2011, the future fate of $15 billion is not clear. (Sudan accounted for 7% of China's oil imports, compared to 60% of its exports for Sudan.)

China has invested not only in oil production, but also in building roads, schools, and hospitals for the local population. The $3 billion transferred to Ukraine is also questionable (the Chinese authorities intend to return the loan through the court by filing a lawsuit in the London Arbitration Court).

However, negative factors of this kind cannot affect the development of the "Go Abroad" strategy. As stated at a briefing at the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China, "political turmoil abroad may indeed have a negative impact on Chinese investment, but we are confident in their long-term prospects. China's direct investment will only grow due to the increased competitiveness of Chinese companies. " 22

In May 2013, negotiations began on the conclusion of an agreement on the promotion and mutual protection of investment between the European Union and China, the signing of which should have a positive impact on the development of the investment process between these entities.

China already has 25 bilateral agreements with EU countries (there are only no agreements with Slovenia, Malta and Ireland). Bilateral agreements on investment promotion and mutual protection are the most common. But since 2009, when the Lisbon Treaty was ratified, the EU countries have the status of a legal entity and act as a single entity. Therefore, it is assumed that the signed joint agreement between the EU and China will replace all previously concluded bilateral agreements.

The main goal of the planned agreement between the EU and the PRC is to unify the rules provided for in different treaties; to improve the protection of investments from European countries to the PRC and, accordingly, Chinese investments in the EU; and to eliminate existing barriers in the investment sphere.

The main obstacle to successful completion of the process is the closure of many industries in China for European investors, which is reflected, first of all, in the difference in investment volumes between the EU and China. The disparity has become particularly pronounced in recent years (in 2012, China's direct investment in the EU was $6.1 billion, while the EU's investment in China was $2.7 billion) .23

To address this problem, the Resolution adopted at the 3rd Plenum of the CPC Central Committee of the 18th convocation provides for expanding the admission of foreign investment in industries in which it was previously prohibited or restricted (or in which increased requirements for foreign investors are established). Foreign investors will be allowed to operate in such areas as financial services, education, culture, medicine, social services, design, construction, accounting and auditing, logistics and e-commerce.

The joint agreement will eliminate obstacles for EU investors in the Chinese market, and will also help increase investment flows through the opening of markets and the creation of a regulatory framework governing mutual investment flows.

FOURTH DIRECTION

"Accelerating the creation of free trade zones with other countries, including abroad."

Free trade zones are one of the forms of economic integration of two or more states, the main advantage of which is the removal of barriers to trade and investment (an example of the most successful work is NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)).


* There is no more recent data available at the time of publication (author's note).

page 16

The Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a North American Free Trade Area.

Currently, China is creating 18 free trade zones abroad, involving 31 countries and 24 territories of the world. 12 free trade agreements have already been signed: between China and ASEAN, Singapore, Pakistan, New Zealand, Chile, Peru, Costa Rica, Iceland and Switzerland; agreements on the organization of close trade and economic relations between the hinterland of China-Hong Kong and Macao, as well as a framework agreement on economic cooperation between mainland China and Taiwan (of the countries listed above, agreements with Iceland and Switzerland have not yet entered into force, while other agreements are already being implemented).

China is currently negotiating free trade agreements with the Republic of Korea, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), Australia and Norway. In addition, a joint review of the possibility of establishing free trade zones with Colombia and Sri Lanka is currently underway.25

The most successful is the China - ASEAN Free Trade Area, which has been operating since January 1, 2010. China's investment component plays an important role in the work of the zone, but the most significant area of economic cooperation is trade. The trade turnover between China and ASEAN in 2013 reached $443.6 billion 26. China has become the largest trading partner of ASEAN, and ASEAN is the third largest trading partner of China, after the EU and the United States. At the end of June 2013, China's accumulated direct investment in the non-financial sector of the ASEAN economies totaled $29.3 billion.27

According to the Decree, China will continue to pay special attention to the creation of free trade zones. With the development of this direction, it is planned to increase the volume of both investment flows and foreign trade.

THE FIFTH DIRECTION

"Expanding openness and cooperation with the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), Macao SAR, Taiwan".

The inclusion of this direction in the final document adopted at the Plenum indicates the importance for mainland China of developing further relations with Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. This is confirmed by both the statements of the leaders of the CPC Central Committee and the agreements on mutual cooperation signed in recent years.

The listed territories are not equally important from the point of view of investment attractiveness for mainland China. One of the features of China's investment activity is its concentration in Hong Kong, which accounted for 57.1% of the total volume of accumulated direct investment at the end of 2013, or $377.1 billion. (Macau -$3.4 billion 28, Taiwan - $1 billion 29).

The successful implementation of the directions outlined at the 3rd Plenum also depends on simplifying the procedure for Chinese companies ' access to foreign investment activities. The Resolution " proposes to simplify the implementation of foreign investments by Chinese entrepreneurs. Currently, to make large investments abroad, Chinese enterprises must first obtain permission from the authorities of the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China. In addition, the rules for providing labor services and performing contract work abroad for Chinese enterprises will be simplified." The changes and innovations approved by the Plenum will obviously be reflected in the legal framework of China.

Thus, the main directions of development of the foreign economic strategy "Going abroad" indicate a course to further increase the volume of Chinese investment abroad.


1 Cit. by: Jiang Zemin. Report to the 1st Session of the National People's Congress of the 9th Convocation (February 1998).

2 Cit. by: Zhu Rongji. Report on the work of the Government at the 5th Session of the National People's Congress of the 9th Convocation (March 2002).

3 http://economy.govrb.ru/extermal relations/invest.pdf

4 http://www.ru.wikipedia.org

5 http://www.meta.kz/309900-.html

6 PBKdaily - http://rbcdaily.ru/world. 19.01.2011.

7 http://russian.people.com.cn/n/2014/0910/с31521 -8780492.html

8 http://cnlegal.ru/china_economic_law/2012_foreign_direct_ investment

9 http://russian.news.cn/economic/2015 - 01/16/c_133925338.htm

10 http://russian.people.com.en/n/2014/0910/c31521 - 8780492. html

11 http://www.rosbalt.ru/business/2014/03/19/1245770.html

12 Chinapro. 03.03.2014.

13 http://tranio.ru/world/analytics

14 For more information, see, for example: Boguslavskiy A. R. Sovremennye tendentsii politiki PRC v Afrika [Current trends in China's policy in Africa]. 2013, N 4. (Boguslavskiy A. R. 2013. Sovremernnye tendentsii politiki KNR v Afrike // Aziya i Afrika Segodnya. No. 4) (in Russian); Deich T. L. China trades with Africa. Pros and cons / / Asia and Africa today. 2014, N 8. (Deich T. L. 2014. Kitai torguet s Afrikoi. Plyusy i minusy // Aziya i Afrika Segodnya. N 8) (in Russian)

15 http://www. russian.china.org.cn/2006/04/11/

16 Xinhua News Agency. 13.05.2013.

17 http://www.globalconstruction2020.com. 03.05.12.

Anokhina E. S. 18 Problems of organization of labor force export from China // Bulletin of Tomsk State University. 2013, N 370. P. 80. (Anokhina E. S. 2013. Problemy organizatsii exporta rabochei sily iz KNR // Vestnik Tomskogo universiteta. N 370) (in Russian)

19 http://cnlegal.ru/china_labour/labour_export_statute

20 http://cnlegal.ru/china_incorporation/eu_investment_agreem ent

21 http://rus.ruvr.ru/2011/03/30/

22 http://rus.ruvr.ru/2011/03/30/48188191/

23 russian.china.org.cn, October 11, 2013.

24 http://www.logists.by/news

25 Xinhua News Agency. 05.12.2013.

26 http://www.cntv.ru/2014/06/09/ARTI1402297841222175.s html

27 Ibid.

28 China Statistical Yearbook 2013. P. 267.

29 Russian.rti.org.tw. January 23, 2015.


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Цеслан Бастанов
Atarau, Kazakhstan
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12.12.2023 (83 days ago)
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