Libmonster ID: KZ-2432
Author(s) of the publication: G. F. BLAGOVA

October 2001 marked the 100th anniversary of the birth of the outstanding educator, researcher of the Tatar, Tuvan, and Khakass languages Fazyl Garifovich Iskhakov (1901-1959) .1

F. G. Iskhakov comes from a poor family. He was born and raised in Troitsk, Orenburg Province (now Chelyabinsk Region), where the population spoke Tatar, Bashkir, Kazakh and Russian. From the age of 11, serving in various merchants ' trading establishments, he became involved in this multilingualism. Raised by a grandmother who wanted a better life for his grandson, he was naturally curious, intelligent and purposeful, and he aspired to knowledge. Therefore, he took advantage of the right granted to him in the morning to attend first the Tatar elementary school, then the Tatar teachers 'seminary " Vazifa".

With the establishment of Soviet power in Troitsk in 1919, the work on educating the Tatars was revived in the city. Iskhakov began to participate and work in the central Tatar library organized by him. Since 1921, it was necessary to combine work in a school, library and study - first at the Tatar Institute of Public Education, then at the Practical Institute of Public Education (in Russian). In 1926, he was sent to Moscow to continue his studies at the Pedagogical Faculty of the Second Moscow State University (now Moscow State Pedagogical University); in the third year, his studies had to be interrupted due to various life difficulties.

In 1926-1937. (intermittently) he taught Tatar at the Communist University of the Workers of the East (KUTV) and worked as an assistant at the Department of Native Languages. Here he was lucky enough to work with E. D. Polivanov, and this finally decided his creative fate - all his life he was enthusiastically engaged in the study of Turkic languages, considering E. D. Polivanov as his teacher. In his teaching, scientific, methodological, and translation activities, a special place was occupied by the duties of an instructor-researcher in Turkic languages in the New Alphabet Central Committee under the Council of Nationalities of the USSR Central Executive Committee. There, with the close participation of N. F. Yakovlev, he passed the school of scientific development and organization of new writing for the old literary and young written languages of numerous Turkic peoples of the USSR. His first scientific article "Introduction of a new Alphabet in Bashkiria" (1934) is devoted to this topic.

In the same period, he began work on compiling school textbooks on the grammar of the Tatar language, and in the late 1940s-early 1950s-on the grammar of the Tuvan, Khakass, Nogai languages and Russian language textbooks for Khakass and Tatar schools. F. G.'s educational activities played an invaluable role in this process. Iskhakov's work in Khakassia and the Krasnoyarsk Territory began in 1939, when he was sent to Khakassia to provide practical assistance to regional departments of public education and schools in translating school instruction into the Russian alphabet, as well as to help improve the teaching methods of the Khakass and Russian languages and prepare programs and textbooks on the Khakass language.

This was actually the beginning of the Siberian period of F. G.'s life. Iskhakova. The survey of Khakass schools provided an opportunity for in-depth language learning; trips to Yeniseysk and other localities where Tatars lived made it possible to establish the peculiarities of their language. By the time of moving F. G. The Khakass literary language was in the initial phase of formation and development. Linguists were faced with the task of accelerating this process. Iskhakov saw the following steps in solving this problem: preparation

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teachers of the Khakass language; preparation of Khakass students for admission to higher educational institutions; development of research work in the field of language, literature and history of Khakassia.

F. G.'s outstanding organizational skills were shown here. Iskhakova. In 1943, the department of Khakass language and literature was opened at the Abakan State Teachers ' Institute, in 1944 - the Khakass Scientific Research Institute of Language, Literature and History, in 1945 - the regional national secondary school with a boarding school for Khakass children on full state support (the school continues to function at the present time). The initiator of the creation of these institutions was F. G. Iskhakov.

At the Abakan Teachers ' Institute of F. G. Iskhakov worked as the head of the Department of Khakass language and Literature and prepared two graduates of the first teachers of the Khakass language for grades 5-7. At the same time, he was in charge of the language sector at the Khakass Research Institute of Language, Literature and History. Under his leadership, a new orthography of the Khakass language was compiled, and the main provisions of the syntax were developed. Iskhakov organized the first Khakass dialectological expedition and led its work, which marked the beginning of many years of consistent study of Khakass dialects and folklore.

After the entry of Tuva into the USSR, Fyodorov Iskhakov was sent by the People's Commissariat of Education of the RSFSR to Tuva to help rebuild schools and create textbooks in his native language. In 1945, together with local colleagues, he prepared for the production of ten textbooks published in Moscow for Tuvan schools.

In 1946, the second Moscow period of his life began. By the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR, he was appointed inspector-consultant for native languages in the Department of non-Russian schools of the Ministry, where he worked until the end of 1950, combining these duties with work at the Institute of Language and Thinking of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In three years, he published 12 textbooks.

After the reorganization of the Institute of Language and Thinking of the USSR Academy of Sciences into the Institute of Linguistics of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1950. Iskhakov completely switched to research work. He transferred his extensive experience as a teacher to the field of studying the phonetic, grammatical and lexical structures of the Turkic languages. Together with N. K. Dmitriev, he wrote the book " Questions of Studying the Khakass language and its Dialects "(1954), which, in addition to information on the history of the Khakass people and the Khakass language, materials on vocabulary, phonetics and grammar, formulated urgent tasks facing Khakass linguists. Of particular scientific value are the lists of words by dialect and dialect collected by him during dialectological expeditions. The linguistic material is presented in comparative terms, which made it possible to clearly characterize the features of the Khakass language-phonetic and morphological phenomena, including verb forms.

The monograph is based on F. G. Iskhakov's "The Khakass language (a short essay on phonetics)" (Abakan, 1956): materials of the Khakass dialectological expedition and materials collected by F. G. Iskhakov himself. Iskhakov. This is the first publication in the history of Turkology on the phonetics of the Khakass language, which gives a clear idea of its sound composition and the laws of sound change.

F. G.'s monograph Iskhakov's " The Tuvan Language (Essay on phonetics) "(1957), which was later nominated for the degree of Candidate of Philological Sciences, is based on extensive factual material, largely collected by the author in the Tuva Autonomous Region directly from native speakers of the Tuvan language, and contains conclusions and generalizations that are extremely important for studying the history of the development of Turkic languages. A typical example is the section on phonetic changes and, in particular, the chapter on" re-assimilation " of consonants in the Tuvan language, which is associated with the loss of a narrow vowel in the second syllable, when an affix containing the same narrow vowel is attached to the base. Another example of a deep interpretation of the peculiar phonetic features of the Tuvan language is given by the author in the comparative description of short and long vowels, proving that in the Tuvan language there are no primary longitudes, and all the longitudes available in it are secondary.

In 1959, F. G. Iskhakov was awarded the degree of Candidate of Philological Sciences. The monograph on the phonetics of the Tuvan language turned out to be the last scientific work of Fyodorov. Iskhakov, published during his lifetime. In May 1959, three months after he defended his Ph. D. thesis, this modest man, who had the gift of high, amazing humaneness, became the head of the University.-

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moral purity and even scrupulousness when it came to responsibility to science or to man ...were gone.

The rest of the works written by him were published after his death (in total, the scientist's pen contains about 50 works that were highly appreciated by domestic and foreign Turkologists). In 1961-1962 F. G.'s articles were published. Iskhakova " Observations on vocabulary in the field of adjectives in Turkic languages "("Historical development of the vocabulary of Turkic languages", 1961) and " Experience of a comparative dictionary of modern Turkic languages "("Studies on comparative grammar of Turkic languages. Lexika", 1962), which marked the beginning of a thorough, detailed development of the basics of comparative lexicology of the Turkic languages. His fruitful study of the issues of lexicology and lexicography of the Turkic languages was successfully combined with practical lexicographic activities - participation in the work of the editorial boards of the first two volumes of the four-volume Russian-Tatar dictionary.

In 1961, in collaboration with A. A. Palmbakh, "Grammar of the Tuvan language. Phonetics and Morphology", written at the request of the Tuvan Research Institute of Language, Literature and History, which describes in detail the phonetic and morphological structure of the literary Tuvan language. This work has not only not lost its value to this day, but has also taken its rightful place in the history of Turkological science. Some fragments of the description of Tuvan phonetics, such as pharyngalization, attracted special attention of scientists from Novosibirsk, Kyzyl, and Moscow, who continued their research on this phenomenon.

F. G. Iskhakov happened to work at the Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences after a discussion on linguistics, when the Institute's Turkologists under the leadership of N. K. Dmitriev resumed work on the first comparative grammar of Turkic languages in the history of science, which had been suspended during the years of the dominance of the "new language teaching", while summarizing their research experience and accumulated material. Iskhakov actively participated in the development of phonetic problems ("Studies on the comparative grammar of Turkic languages. Phonetics". 1955), he also wrote important articles in the volume " Morphology "("Studies on comparative grammar of Turkic languages", 1956): "Noun", "Numeral", "Pronoun". Full Name Articles The Iskhakovs are closely related to each other and represent a complete, monolithic section. The section uses material from seventeen modern literary Turkic languages. His article "Present Tense forms of the indicative verb in the Tuvan language", published in the same volume, is also of theoretical importance.

The first two volumes of" Studies in Comparative Grammar " became widely known in our country and abroad. Full Name Articles Iskhakov's works published in these volumes were highly appreciated by turkologists in China, Poland, Germany, and France.

note

1The Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences held a meeting of the Academic Council dedicated to this anniversary. Speakers at the meeting: E. R. Tenishev, K. M. Musaev, K. F. Iskhakov (son of the hero of the day) analyzed the scientific work of F. G. Iskhakov, one of the developers of the first comparative grammar of Turkic languages, who left a noticeable mark not only in Khakass and Tuvan, but also in Turkic linguistics. M. A. Kumakhov noted the need to republish selected works of the scientist. Memories of F. G. Iskhakov shared the daughter of a scientist an employee of the Institute Kh. Iskhakov, as well as A. L. Kovshov and L. G. Ofrosimov-Serov.


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