Libmonster ID: KZ-2312
Author(s) of the publication: T. DEITCH


Candidate of Historical Sciences

The collapse of the Soviet Union, one of the consequences of which was the sovereignization of foreign economic activity of post-Soviet states, negatively affected Russian-African relations, which sharply declined. Today, Russia has to build relations with Africa on a new basis. And in this situation, it may be interested in the experience of China , a dynamically developing country that is successfully integrating into world economic relations, actively developing and improving mutually beneficial economic cooperation with the vast majority of African countries.

In the twenty-first century, China is becoming one of the most active players on the African stage, in fact, taking the place of the former Soviet Union. China, according to experts, may turn into a major competitor of Western countries in the next decade and push them harder and harder in African markets.

Relations with Africa are an integral component of Beijing's multipolar world strategy. Considering the United States as a Power seeking global hegemony, China puts the task of creating a new just international economic order as one of its main foreign economic priorities. At the same time, relations with Africa meet the urgent needs of China's economic development. The continent, rich in natural resources, is considered by Beijing as an important factor in the successful growth of China, whose economy today is particularly in need of mineral raw materials.

For its part, Africa is interested in Chinese investment and technology, technical and economic cooperation with China, and mutually beneficial trade exchanges. With the help of the People's Republic of China, the countries of the continent hope to take a more worthy place in the world, to achieve equal participation in world economic relations.


Unlike the former metropolises, which rely in their relations with the countries of the continent on ties preserved from colonial times, the Chinese leadership widely uses the thesis of "common destinies and tasks" of all developing countries in its African policy. This thesis, which was popular in Africa during the Cold War, also resonates in the era of globalization, which is accompanied by a deepening gap between developed and developing countries. According to Chinese leaders, the current situation in the world is characterized by "many unfair factors", 1 and "China, as the largest developing country, and Africa, as the continent with the largest number of developing countries, are facing historical opportunities for development and at the same time unprecedented challenges".2

Official statements of the Chinese leadership emphasize that without economic growth in areas where 3/4 of the world's population lives, developed countries will inevitably face the problem of providing resources. The Chinese representative to the UN has always supported the proposals of African countries regarding the creation of regional economic organizations for raw materials and the establishment of tighter control over natural resources. China calls on developed countries to "show mercy to debtors" and prevent them from paying off their debts by slowing growth and reducing the already low standard of living of the population.

Speeches by Chinese politicians and economists call for an end to discrimination in international trade, protect the trade interests of African countries, and demand the transfer of advanced Western technologies to these countries on preferential terms.

China supports the reform of international economic organizations and financial institutions in order to make it easier for Africans to fight for their interests. The importance of Beijing's position for Africa was demonstrated by the Cancun Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2003, where the West was forced to agree to a number of demands of developing countries, which were actively supported by China. A victory for African cotton producers can also be considered the agreement of rich countries to eliminate all subsidies for the export of this raw material in 2006, and this was achieved with the support of China at the WTO conference in Hong Kong in December 2005. The meeting participants also agreed that by 2008, developed countries will be required to provide free access to their markets - without quotas and restrictions.-

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exclusive duties - for 9% of goods exported by countries with an annual per capita income not exceeding $ 750. However, despite the demand of Brazil, China and a number of other countries to eliminate subsidies to agricultural producers in developed countries by 2010, the deadline for this decision was still pushed back to 2013.

The fundamental Chinese doctrine of cooperation with Africa is the "South-South" formula, which implies the expansion of trade between developing countries, cooperation in the development of intermediate technologies, and mutual technical assistance. Beijing believes that the potential of African countries allows them to achieve accelerated economic growth, but this requires the establishment of a new, just and rational world economic order.

At the turn of the century, Chinese concepts of economic development in Africa focused on poverty reduction. Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, in a speech in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in December 2003, identified poverty, diseases (such as AIDS), and the lack of democracy in Africa's political systems as the main threats to the global world order, calling on rich nations to "show more care, attention, and understanding of African problems."3 China's Permanent Representative to the UN, Wang Guanyang, in his speech at the plenary session of the 60th session of the UN General Assembly in October 2005, called on the world community to fulfill its promises to help Africa as soon as possible, to contribute to its development so that African countries can solve their urgent problems, realize their abilities and the right to self-determination..

The last decade has witnessed the modernization of China-Africa economic relations. If earlier they were mainly interstate in nature, now an independent role has been given to enterprises and companies of the PRC. Beijing encourages and encourages their trade and investment cooperation with African partners.

The China-Africa cooperation forums at the ministerial level confirm China's commitment to making zeitgeist adjustments in its economic ties with Africa. Speaking at the first China-Africa Forum in Beijing in October 2000, Chinese President Jiang Zemin called it "a great undertaking in the history of China-Africa relations." 4

The Forum adopted the Beijing Declaration and the China-Africa Economic and Social Development Cooperation Program. These documents refer to China's economic and social development assistance to Africa in the framework of South-South cooperation, the need to boost mutual trade, and investment protection and guarantees. At the same time, China has made a number of commitments, including: 1) continue to provide assistance to African countries and expand its scope, including the provision of concessional and interest-free loans; 2) partially or completely write off 10 billion US dollars over the next two years. RMB ($1.2 billion) of debt from some of Africa's poorest countries; 3) establish a fund to support Chinese enterprises ' investment in the African economy; 4 )establish a Human Resource Development Fund for Africa to help its countries train their personnel. 5

In December 2003, a second Forum was held in Addis Ababa to "give a new impetus to China-Africa trade and economic relations", according to Ai Ping, the Chinese Ambassador to Ethiopia .6 It was attended by representatives of more than 40 African countries, including Premier Wen Jiabao of the State Council of the People's Republic of China and UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan.

The "Action Plan of the China-Africa Cooperation Forum for 2004-2006" was adopted in Addis Ababa, which contains specific plans for China's cooperation with African countries in the economic, trade and social spheres. Speaking at the opening of the Forum, the Chinese premier said that the Chinese government has fulfilled its promise by writing off the debt of 31 African countries in the amount of $ 1.27 billion. 7

At the same time as the Forum, 300 Chinese and 250 African entrepreneurs met and signed memoranda of understanding on 20 projects worth over $ 500 million. 8

The forum is scheduled to be held every three years, alternately in China and Africa. The next, 3rd one will be held in Beijing in 2006. The 1st summit of the leaders of China and Africa will be held during the forum. Regular meetings of high-level forum participants are also planned. Such a meeting, in particular, took place in August 2005.

The organization of the forums, the decisions taken at them, and the tangible results of China's practical activities in implementing them have found a very favorable response in Africa. An example is Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe's speech in Addis Ababa, which called on Africans to "turn away from the West and develop cooperation with China, which has always respected Africans." 9


After a long period of "restructuring" that China's economic relations with the countries of the continent have experienced, Beijing is once again becoming one of the major "donors" to Africa. From 2001 to 2005, China signed more than 300 aid agreements with African countries. At the same time, there was an annual increase in the volume of assistance by 3%.

Concessional lending remains an important type of assistance. China seeks to control the targeted disbursement of loans provided locally, focusing on the implementation of socio-economic development projects that it determines itself. The most important areas of credit allocation are the construction of infrastructure, healthcare, and agriculture. A total of 800 projects in agriculture, fish farming, textiles, energy, and infrastructure were supported by the countries of the continent .10 Assistance includes the creation of new industries, the reconstruction of enterprises built with the assistance of China (loans from Tanzania and Zambia for the repair of the TANZAM railway - the largest

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a project implemented with Chinese assistance; Botswana - for the repair of a railway; Mali-for the restoration of a number of objects, etc.).

The priority area of cooperation is assistance in the development of agriculture. In 2001-2005, memoranda of understanding were signed in this area with Egypt, Kenya, Ethiopia, Mozambique, agreements with the Ministries of Agriculture of Mauritania, Ghana, Ethiopia, Mali, etc. In just two years (2002-2003), China sent 62 agricultural experts to Africa .11 In total, 10 thousand agricultural specialists worked here at different times and provided assistance to 40 countries in the implementation of 200 projects 12 .

One of the most pressing problems on the continent, which China is also helping to solve, is the provision of drinking water to the population. In 2004, he opened a $ 23.5 million drainage canal that he donated to Tanzania. The then President of the country, B. Mkapa*, remarked on this occasion that Tanzania itself would not have been able to allocate funds for this purpose from its budget .13

In the healthcare sector, more than 30 agreements were signed or renewed in 2001-2005 to send Chinese medical specialists to Africa and provide the continent's countries with medicines, medical equipment and materials free of charge. Since 1963, 15 thousand Chinese doctors have worked in Africa. Currently, 37 medical teams of 1,100 people work in the countries of the continent .14 China owes much of its medical staff's work to the popularity of its aid in Africa. In 2002, the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China organized training courses for Africans in the treatment and prevention of malaria and tropical diseases. The China-Africa healthcare cooperation program includes the construction of hospitals in the continent's countries. For example, China has taken over funding for the construction of a cardiology center in Tanzania, which is very important for a country whose residents are forced to travel to South Africa or India for treatment of heart diseases.

Training is an important part of the Chinese aid program. This task is assigned to the Human Resources Development Fund in Africa, which operates under the auspices of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Trade, Education, Science and Technology, Agriculture, and Health, each of which is responsible for training African personnel in its area of competence. 2000-2005 China funded 300 courses under the Fund, which trained about 10,000 specialists in the fields of diplomacy, management, defense, agriculture, healthcare, etc. Every year, students from African countries receive more than 1.5 thousand scholarships to study at universities in China 15 . In total, 15,300 Africans received scholarships for studying at Chinese universities during the entire period of cooperation. In 2005, about 2 thousand African students studied in China.


China's experience of gaining a foothold in the markets of African countries during the implementation of the policy of "openness" and stimulating foreign trade is very significant. China has trade agreements with 41 African countries. Trade grew from $ 12 million in the early 1950s to $ 8.7 billion in 2000, reaching $ 18 billion in 2003 and $ 29.46 billion in 2004.16 According to Chinese Customs data, in January-October 2005, China's trade with African countries reached $ 32.17 billion. 17

At the Second China-Africa Cooperation Forum in 2003, it was stated that China hopes to triple its trade with African countries in the next three years.

An important factor in the growth of China's foreign trade was its decentralization. The Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (MVTES) and its subordinate foreign trade companies were deprived of the monopoly right to carry out export-import operations. Currently, more than 150 Chinese trading companies and agents operate on the African continent. The right to independently enter the foreign market is granted to provinces, autonomous regions of the People's Republic of China and individual enterprises. At the same time, the tax rate has been halved for companies that receive 70% of their revenue from exporting their products.

The growth of Chinese foreign trade is also due to enterprises with foreign capital. While in 1981 they accounted for only 0.4% of Chinese exports and 0.5% of imports ,in 1999 these figures were 45.5% and 51.8%, respectively .18 In 2003, China ranked 4th in the world in terms of exports, with 1/2 of its exports coming from subsidiaries of foreign firms that invest directly in the PRC economy .19 In 2005, the People's Republic of China became the world's 3rd largest trading power; the volume of Chinese foreign trade amounted to $ 1.3 trillion (including exports - 762 billion, imports - more than 660 billion) - this figure is contained in the message of Vice Premier of the State Council Wu Yi to the National Trade Workshop held in Beijing on January 19 2006

In Africa, 11 investment and trade promotion centers have been opened, their functions include payment security, customs duties, insurance, and consulting.-

* In December 2005, Tanzania elected a new President, Mrisho Japaya Kikwete.

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recipients. The China Export-Import Bank and the Bank of China have established a special "Group for Trade, Economic, Technical and Economic Cooperation and coordination of relations with African Countries" under the auspices of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, which is responsible for organizing and coordinating the development of trade, economic and investment cooperation with Africa.

Until the second half of the 1990s, the bulk of Beijing's trade with the continent's countries was accounted for by Chinese exports, which was partly due to the desire of the Chinese leadership to equalize its foreign trade balance at the expense of developing countries, which was reduced to a deficit, since in trade with its main partners (the United States, Japan, and EU countries), mostly as an importer.

Measures aimed at improving the export structure, improving the quality of manufactured products, and expanding the product range contributed to the growth of Chinese exports to Africa. In the structure of Chinese exports to Africa, the share of finished products grew, while the share of agricultural and mineral raw materials and semi-finished products decreased. Overall, the share of finished products in exports increased from 37% in 1985 to 87% in 1999, with high-tech products accounting for 17% of the output 20 . And in January 2006, the Ministry of Energy of the People's Republic of China reported that due to the continuous improvement of the product range exported to Africa, exports of machine-building and electrical products, as well as high-tech and new technologies, have increased rapidly .21

The incentive for Chinese exports to Africa was and still is commodity loans, which are provided for the purchase of various equipment in China. This applies, in particular, to military-technical products, which still occupy a significant place in Chinese exports to Africa. Beijing has practically ousted all foreign suppliers of weapons and military equipment from the sphere of military-technical cooperation in Tanzania. In 2003, ORT F. was appointed Minister of Defense. Sarungi, in particular, acknowledged that Tanzania prioritizes China in its (defense) policy, especially in terms of military equipment supplies .22

Since the trade imbalance has repeatedly been criticized by Africans, the Chinese leadership has taken measures to expand the volume of imports from the continent. Enterprises entering the African market were advised to engage not only in the sale of their own products, but also in marketing activities in order to find imported products that meet the needs of the PRC.

At the Forum in Addis Ababa, Chinese Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing announced the government's intention to grant duty-free import of some African products to China, and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao announced that 34 African countries will receive preferential access to the Chinese market. In 2005, in order to promote bilateral trade and economic cooperation, China exempted 29 least developed African countries from customs duties on the export of about 200 of their products to China.

In 2000, China's imports from the continent exceeded its exports to Africa for the first time - $ 4.631 billion and $ 4.071 billion respectively. respectively 23 . In January-October 2005, imports exceeded exports by almost $ 1.7 billion ($16.92 billion for imports and $ 15.25 billion for exports) .24

Of course, the growth in imports from Africa is primarily due to Beijing's interest in African raw materials. In terms of hydrocarbon imports, China has overtaken Japan and reached the 2nd place in the world after the United States. At the same time, China receives 25% of its oil imports from Africa .25 And in 2010, China, according to experts ' forecasts, will provide 45% of its oil imports from Africa.

Among the African oil suppliers to China are South Africa, Libya, Algeria, Sudan, Nigeria, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon. Following the visit of Chinese President Hu Jintao to Algeria and Gabon in 2004, the Franco-Gabonese company Total Gabon and China's Sinopec signed an agreement on the sale of Gabonese oil to China. A similar agreement was signed with Algeria. From January to August 2002, oil and petroleum products imported by China from Angola and Sudan accounted for 94.2% and 76.7% of bilateral trade, respectively .26 Following the lifting of UN sanctions, a Chinese trade delegation visited Libya in August 1999, marking the resumption of bilateral trade relations that had been frozen since 1994. In the same year, China imported 140,000 tons of oil from Libya .27 In this regard, the visit of Chinese Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing to Nigeria and Libya in January 2006 is of particular importance. Shortly before that, it was reported that the Chinese corporation CNOOC bought a 45% stake in the Nigerian Akpo oil field for $ 2.3 billion. According to experts, Nigeria can become the second African supplier of this type of raw material to China after Sudan, in the economy of which the PRC has invested $ 4 billion. 28

In addition to oil, China imports ores of various metals from Africa. It has become the largest consumer of copper, cobalt, and energy resources. Experts attribute to China both the unprecedented demand for metals in the African market and the rise in prices for mineral resources, which allowed African countries to increase their export revenues. Thus, Lazarus Zim, a representative of the Anglo-American global Resources Group in Cape Town, said that the growing demand for iron ore in China opens up great opportunities for African producers of this type of raw material .29

In the last decade, China-Africa trade has developed three main geographical areas: south-eastern (South Africa, Angola, Kenya, Tanzania); western and central (Nigeria, Gabon, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo); and northern (Egypt, Sudan, Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia).

South Africa is China's leading trading partner on the continent, accounting for 28% of China's trade with Africa. In turn, China is South Africa's second most important trading partner in Asia. Impress yourself

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the pace of development of bilateral trade relations. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established only in 1998. Since then, the volume of trade has grown 20-fold, reaching $ 5 billion in 2004.30

South Africa exports gold, platinum, diamonds, iron, copper, chromium, aluminum, polymetallic ores, coal briquettes, paper, pulp, wool, tobacco, as well as machinery and technology to China. Exports of South African mining and transport equipment increased by 65%between 2002 and 200431 . Chinese exports to South Africa include textiles, ready-made clothing, shoes, electrical goods, and chemical products.

In 2004, South Africa and China announced the start of negotiations on the creation of a free trade zone. South Africa has offered China an FTA option that would give advantages to local exports over Chinese exports to South Africa, including textiles and clothing-products whose local production suffers from imports of Chinese goods. For its part, during the negotiations, Pretoria agreed to recognize China as a market economy .32

Although China-Africa trade is developing quite successfully, it faces certain challenges. In particular, the influx of Chinese goods is perceived cautiously in countries whose local industry cannot compete with them. Trade is hindered by the lack of goods of interest to China in a number of African countries, their lack of funds, as well as conflicts, crime, complex visa processing procedures, and transport problems.


Investment cooperation is becoming increasingly prominent in China's economic ties with African countries.

The Program adopted at the first China-Africa Cooperation Forum provides for such measures as investment protection and guarantees, avoidance of double taxation, preferences for investors under national legislation, exchange of management experience, creation of joint and private Chinese enterprises in Africa, including small and medium-sized enterprises, and benefits for joint businesses as a key factor in the development of partnership relations. The Chinese Government has pledged to support the investment of Chinese enterprises in the African economy, share investment experience with African countries, and develop and improve investment process financing schemes .33

A fund has been established specifically designed to cover the risks of Chinese enterprises acting as investors abroad, including insurance of external loans and credits, and the creation of international marketing funds for small and medium-sized enterprises.

In 2000, there were 480 Chinese companies operating in 47 African countries with a total investment of $ 820 million, with Chinese capital accounting for $ 530 million.34 At the end of 2004, there were already 674 Chinese companies operating on the continent (according to other sources, 715).

At the same time, agreements on mutual protection of investments were signed with 34 African countries, and agreements on avoidance of double taxation were signed with 14 countries .35 In 2004 alone, 77 Chinese companies started operating in Africa with an investment fund of $ 135 million. 36

As of October 2005, China's total investment in Africa reached more than $ 1 billion.37 In the first half of 2005 alone, the volume of foreign direct investment (FDI) amounted to $ 124 million.38. China plans to become a leading investor in the African economy. However, Africa accounts for only 4% of Chinese FDI; by comparison, 50% of Chinese FDI comes from Latin America and 40% from Asia. The total volume of China's foreign direct investment exceeded $ 50 billion at the end of 2005.39

The rapid growth of the Chinese economy resulted in the strengthening of the international position of Chinese companies. Thus, the largest oil refining company "Sinopek" (2.4 million barrels per day). per day), one of the top ten Asian firms, moved from 7th to 5th place, increasing sales in 2003 by 27.9% compared to 2002.40 According to the statistical summary of "Sinopek" for 2005. oil production by this company increased in 2005 by 1.7% compared to the previous year. 2004 and amounted to 278.82 million barrels.41 Sinopek is active in Africa. In 2002. It signed a $ 525 million contract to develop oil fields in Algeria's Sahara Desert and a contract to participate in the extraction, refining and export of Gabonese petroleum products42 to China , and in 2003 it signed a contract to import oil from Nigeria. Another company, China National Oil and Gas Company, invested in the construction of an oil refinery in the Algerian Sahara and a 750 km pipeline in Sudan.

Chinese companies are also interested in other mineral resources in Africa. China has invested in a copper mining project in Zambia, is involved in the development of the Ivory Coast mining industry, etc. One of the largest investment projects - the joint venture for the extraction of chromium "Hey Es Hey Mineral" in the Northern Province of South Africa, China has invested $ 20 million in it. Chinese Ambassador to South Africa Liu Gujing said the investment will grow to $ 70 million. 43

Areas of investment cooperation also include civil engineering, infrastructure, high technologies, and industry. For example, the Chinese firm Huashi Enterprises Corporation started the reconstruction of the Zanzibar airport in 2004, winning a tender for this contract in the amount of $ 9.7 million. 44

Chinese corporations are increasingly active in the South African market. By 2000. They have established 85 companies in South Africa. China's investment projects include the construction of office buildings, shops, a " dragon city "-a kind of Chinese mini-policy in South Africa, as well as enterprises for the production of goods for" lower class " consumers. So, 4 Chinese enterprises have built their own television factory in South Africa.

In total, the Chinese government has approved over 100 investment projects in South Africa. At the same time, there were:-

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70 South African projects in China have been approved. Chinese investment in South Africa totaled $ 180 million in 2004, while South African investment in China totaled $ 570 million. 45

According to South Africa's Ambassador to China Tembo Kubek, 17 South African companies operated in China in 2004.46 An example of active business cooperation between the two countries is the activity of the South African company Kumba Resources in China. Its relations with China began in the 1980s, when it participated in the reconstruction of the port of Qin Dao, which allowed it to receive larger vessels. Kumba owns 60% of the shares of a zinc factory built with its help in Inner Mongolia .47

It seems that China's business cooperation with African countries is quite promising, especially since the African countries themselves are interested in expanding and deepening such cooperation. "You understand us better than Westerners, and you can help us realize our hopes for an African renaissance," said B. Mkapa, then President of Tanzania .48

China's rapid growth, which experts predict will continue in the coming years and which forces the country's leadership to seek to attract resources to the economy, is a guarantee that Chinese investment in Africa, primarily in its raw materials sector, will grow.

At the same time, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation is taking steps to improve investment cooperation with Africa. In 2004. it has pledged to loosen control over this process, eliminating, in particular, the requirement for preliminary verification of the financial viability of an investor. From now on, the decision to invest will be made by the companies themselves, and the number of documents required for this purpose will be reduced.

In September 2004, China announced a new program, implemented under the auspices of the United Nations and described by Deputy Prime Minister of China. Minister of Commerce Wei Jianguo as the "South-South Cooperation Project". According to the project, the least developed countries of the "third world", with the exception of those with diplomatic ties with Taiwan (and there are 7 of them in Africa), will receive various forms of assistance from China, including growing investment by Chinese companies. "We hope," said Wei Jianguo, " that this project and our efforts will serve as a catalyst for Chinese private companies to increase investment in Africa. For its part, the government will try to support them with preferential bank loans and an insurance guarantee of loans. " 49

The main obstacle to the growth of China's investment in Africa is the lack of information about this continent among Chinese companies, ignorance of local laws and regulations. In this regard, the Ministry of Energy expressed its readiness to provide potential investors with information about the terms of trade and investment climate of African countries by creating a special website on the Internet, and oblige the Chinese embassies in Africa to provide Chinese companies with the information they need. The Ministry also organized training programs for those who want to establish business relationships with African partners to help them better understand the market, policies and legislation of African countries.

An important moment for strengthening economic cooperation is the exchange of visits, and the highest level for the period. After a new generation of Chinese leaders came to power in China in 2003, and until February 2006, President Hu Jintao, Premier Wen Jiabao, and his deputies, Foreign Minister, and other officials made 17 such visits to African countries.

It has become a tradition for Chinese foreign ministers to start the new year with a visit to Africa. The new year of 2006 began with the visit of Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing to Africa: on January 11-19, he visited Libya, Nigeria, Liberia, Mali, Senegal, and Cape Verde. For their part, 54 high - ranking officials from African countries visited China between 2004 and 2005. Among them were the heads of States such as Mozambique, Madagascar, Burundi, Mali, Namibia, Central African Republic, Gabon, Ethiopia, Mauritania, and Nigeria.

Seeing the interest that Chinese leaders show in their countries, African entrepreneurs are more willing to engage in contacts and cooperation with Chinese partners in the economic sphere.

* * *

Summing up the above, it should be recognized that although China is forced to overcome rather tough competition with Western companies in its activities on the African continent, it still managed to achieve very significant success here. Contrary to the prevailing opinion that all areas of cooperation with African countries have already been fully developed by highly developed countries, the Chinese are finding free niches here and actively filling them with the efforts of their businesses with the support of the state.

In our opinion, the success of China's foreign economic activity on the African continent and the growing role of private enterprise initiatives in it, while maintaining control functions in the hands of the state, are of particular interest to Russia, whose economic relations with African countries have experienced a serious crisis and whose small and medium-sized businesses feel unprotected in the face of intense competition in African markets.


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Қазақстан Желіде
Астана, Kazakhstan
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29.04.2024 (57 days ago)
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Kazakhstan, as a country with a developing economy, attracts the attention of not only investors but also gambling operators. The regulation of casinos in Kazakhstan has its unique features and aims to balance the economic benefits with the social risks associated with gambling. This article explores the key legislative acts and regulations governing casino activities in Kazakhstan and recent changes in this field.
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