E. I. ZELENEV
Doctor of Historical Sciences
National Research University Higher School of Economics-Saint Petersburg
Keywords: Islam, Islamic education, phenomenon, madrasah, jihad, Boko Haram
The system of Islamic (religious) education can be considered a phenomenon of global culture, which has the property of self-sufficiency and self-development. The concept of "phenomenon" in this case is used in a sense similar to the interpretation of the German philosopher Edmund G. A. Husserl (1859-1938) in his phenomenological theory. He identifies the main feature of the phenomenon - the unity of contents, i.e. its integrity and isolation in the world of experimental knowledge.1
Many researchers have contributed to the understanding of the theory and practice of Islamic education.2 Over the past half-century, Islamic education has experienced two periods of accelerated development. The first period was the 1970s-1980s, when large funds received from oil production in a number of Islamic countries were directed to Islamic education. The second period is the decade after 2001, especially under the influence of the turbulent events in the Islamic world of the last 4-5 years. Today, the model of Islamic education is rapidly evolving in the direction of a separate segment of world culture, which is not controlled by systematic leveling on a global scale.
Our research sets out the fundamental principles of the concept of Islamic education of the South African scholar, Professor of the University of Stellenbosch (South Africa) Youssef Wahid and some other theorists of Islamic education, and also shows the connection of the phenomenon of Islamic education with modern political processes.
THE PHENOMENON OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE THEORY OF "DETACHED THINKING"
Considering Islamic education a priori from the point of view of phenomenology, we note its influence on the processes of studying by Muslims the experience of their own Self and the experience of knowing the abstract Other. A vivid example of this is the work of Islamic enlighteners and religious reformers of the XIX-XX centuries, such as Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1838/39-1897), Muhammad Abdo (1849-1905), Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865-1935) and others who contributed to the development of Islamic education, expanding its capabilities by mastering the world pedagogical potential. experience.
The apparent "detachment" of the subject under consideration - the concepts of Islamic education-from the practice of life in practice turns out to be the birth of a new universal (global) "semantic unit" from the phenomenon of Islamic education, which allows us to look at the political processes of today as the consequences of Islamic pedagogical activity. It is logical to assume that the political future of the world indirectly, through participants in the political process, depends on the results of today's pedagogical work. The political behavior of individuals is closely related to the education they received much earlier. Modern education (including Islamic education) is, so to speak, the "subconscious" of the future political process in the Islamic community 3,4.
An important component of modern education is considered to be its ability to form a student's compartmentalized mind ("separate thinking"). This concept is considered as an important indicator of the quality of modern secular education in the world, which allows the holder of a prestigious diploma to avoid cognitive dissonance and psychological discomfort caused by conflicting values, knowledge, emotions, and beliefs that have penetrated their consciousness during the learning process.
According to one of the most authoritative representatives of Islamic pedagogical thought, Seid Hussein Nasr*, the formation of a compartmentalized mind is a feature of education in most prestigious universities in the world, primarily in the United States. He believes that modern Islamic education should strive for such a quality of education, but on the basis of Islamic values. In his opinion, modern Islamic education is experiencing a crisis of rebirth or rebirth. The fact is that, in accordance with the Islamic fundamental doctrine "at-tawhid" (the doctrine of monotheism), Islamic education should everywhere bridge the gap between traditional (Islamic) and so-called modern secular education or Western type of education. We are talking not only about the humanities, but also about the exact and natural sciences.
Today, this gap is typical for most Muslim countries. It is most noticeable in countries that have undergone secularization reforms (Turkey, Syria, Egypt, etc.), or in countries where Muslims are an influential minority (India, China, etc.). Even in Iran, where the gap between the two education systems is already large-
The publication is based on the results of the project "Minority and Majority in the Asian-African area: "Ethics" vs "Efficiency" in the Context of sociocultural Interaction", implemented within the framework of the Fundamental Research Program of the Higher School of Economics (HSE).
* Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1984-present), Professor of Islamic Studies at George Washington University (USA) (author's note).
These years are being deliberately overcome with the full support of the state, but the task is far from being solved, according to Seid Hussein Nasr. He compares Islamic education to a tree whose roots are in the past, and whose trunk and branches are in the present and future, and they can develop in any direction.
Nasr emphasizes the concept of "Islamic tradition", saying that for more than 300 years it has not been in demand either in the Islamic world itself or abroad.
Today, the appeal to the concept of " Islamic tradition "is not" resuscitation of the deceased", but something opposite. This is an inoculation of immunity to the living person against the so-called modern worldviews - "modern versions of the worldview" that distort reality and cause deep discomfort among the carriers of" unmodernized " cultural values.
Tradition, according to Nasr, is the spiritual core of civilization. "Modernity demonstrates the remarkable inner unity of Islamic tradition and Islamic civilization"5. Islam allows you to be an internationally recognized thinker-like Abu Reyhan al-Biruni, an outstanding artist - like Kemaleddin Behzad, an outstanding poet - like Mutanabbi, while remaining in the bosom of Islam and its traditions.
Nasr says that he is against the "totalitarianism of modern science", meaning by this the omnipotence of the "Western image of the world" and the "Western tradition" in modern education, which offers the Muslim a meager choice: either modern knowledge with the rejection of Islamic values, or Islamic values with the inevitable exclusion from modern knowledge. The latter is unacceptable in principle, since it contradicts the main principle of Islamic education: never separate knowledge from Islamic ethics.6
The incompatibility of the ethics of Islamic education with the ethics of modern liberal education, noted by some authors, mainly non-Muslims, 7 is strongly denied by adherents of the Islamic educational tradition.8
The views of Seid Hussein Nasr give an idea of the strategic vector of development of Islamic education-in an alternative direction to what is defined today in most developed countries as "modern secular education".
GENESIS OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION AS INTERPRETED BY Yu. WAHIDA
In 2011, the international publishing house Peter Lang published a book by the Dean of the Faculty of Education of the University of Stellenbosch, Professor of Philosophy and Pedagogy Youssef Wahid " Concept of Islamic Education. Pedagogical Framings"9. His research on the concepts of Islamic education in the modern world is an attempt to conceptualize the phenomenon of Islamic education.
This work has a significant character, leading to the idea of a "phenomenology of Islamic education" with filling this concept with positive content. A significant part of the research is devoted to the phenomenon of cosmopolitanism and the presence of this ideologeme among the basic principles on which modern Islamic education is built, which is not limited by state borders or state doctrines. In this context, Islamic education is shaping itself as a global phenomenon, an alternative to the so-called "national" and "international local" models of education.
By appealing to the idea of "cosmopolitanism", the Islamic educational doctrine keeps pace with the times. Let us recall that the German sociologist Ulrich Beck considers "cosmopolitanization"as a bright sign of the coming age of global change. 10 His main ideological constructs-cosmopolitan society, cosmopolitanization from within, cosmopolitan sociology, cosmopolitan perspective, and finally cosmopolitan patriotism - are in tune with what Yousef Wahid puts into the concept of "cosmopolitanization of Islamic education".
According to the concept of Yusef Wahid, Islamic educational institutions everywhere exist in close connection with mosques. The first mosque in the Islamic world, Masjid al - Quba, was created by the Prophet Muhammad in Medina immediately after the exodus from Mecca (Hijra) in 622 BC11. It served both as a political and cultural and educational center, while remaining, first of all, a house of prayer, in a broader sense - a sacred religious place, the House of the Lord (Baitu-l-Lah). This gave a special sacred meaning to everything that happened there, including the training of the first Muslims.12 The first, so to speak, structural units of Islamic education were the (educational) group (jam') and the (educational) circle (halqa) attached to the mosque.
The teacher, or rather mentor, would sit with his back to a wall or pillar in the mosque, and the students, or rather listeners, would sit in a semicircle opposite (hence the name "circle"). Often, the circle of listeners acquired a permanent character, and then a group of more or less permanent students (jam'), or a study group, appeared.
These groups became educational units attached to mosques. Their members, led by a mentor, sometimes by the imam of the mosque himself or a person authorized by him, enjoyed special rights, could stay inside the mosque not only during prayers, but also in the intervals between them, conduct a full-fledged educational process on a regular basis, i.e. they had constant days and hours of classes. They studied various Islamic sciences of the so-called primary cycle (Arabic with its complex grammar, writing and calligraphy, understanding the meaning of the Koran, reading aloud, memorizing it by heart, etc.).
In the eighth and ninth centuries, virtually all the mosques of the Muslim world at that time were a kind of educational institutions, thanks to which the continuity of religious knowledge was carried out. Along with mosques, religious education was provided in maktabs or kuttabs, Muslim primary schools.
As a rule, the teacher (mu'allim) gathered his students aged 7 to 10 years in a room in an ordinary house, where he taught the children the basic (elementary) subjects of Islamic education in a somewhat expanded form - the Koran and its commentaries, the doctrine (i'tiqad), calligraphy, poetry, and the basics of the Arabic literary language.13
Maktabs/kushtabs were considered as the primary link of Islamic education, which gave an opportunity to continue their education in madrasas, where advanced specialization in basic areas of Islamic education, including law, took place.
In the tenth century, regular educational activities separated from the mosque, but did not separate from it. A new Islamic educational institution, the madrassah Islamic School, was established. It is believed that madrassas were widely used due to the outstanding statesman of the XI century, the vizier in the Seljuk state during the reign of the sultans Alp-Arslan (1063-1072) and Malik Shah (1072-1092) - the Persian Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn Ishaq at-Tusi, who bore the title Nizam al-Mulk (Order of the Kingdom) (1018/1019/1020-1092). There is information that Nizam al-Mulk founded madrasah schools, which became known as Nizamiyya, in almost every city in Iraq and Khorosan.
The fundamental difference between madrasas and circles and groups in mosques, which, by the way, have not disappeared, retaining their significance as an educational, irregular link in Islamic education, is that madrasas have a professional staff of teachers (mudarris - teacher), a special room for training sessions, as well as residential premises where a part of the population lives. students. The latter makes it possible to consider madrasas as a boarding school. This is a very effective finding of the Islamic educational model, which makes it possible to solve, along with educational tasks, a number of educational tasks, and with a very high degree of efficiency. Youssef Wahid suggests not to mix training in madrasas with training at a mosque, emphasizing their fundamentally different level.
Summing up the section on institutes of Islamic education, Youssef Wahid states that there are three basic institutes of Islamic pre-higher education: the maktab, the mosque, and the madrasah, naming, in addition to them, the khan, where individual education is provided, and libraries (units-maktaba), known by numerous names: bait al-hikma, khizanat al-hikma, dar al-ilm, dar al-kutub, khizanat al-kutub, bait al-kutub14. According to Yu. According to Wahid, the quality of education in various Islamic educational institutions was entirely dependent on the composition of teachers, i.e. it was unstable.
Y. VAHID'S CONCEPT OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION
Islamic education contrasts the national experience with transcendental knowledge, access to the sphere of almost limitless imaginative modeling. Broad freedom of interpretation within the limits of what is" permissible " is what Yousef Wahid sees as the main advantage of the Islamic educational model, which compares favorably with other models that either do not provide the necessary internal freedom, or lack moral and ethical guidelines and restrictions. In the Islamic educational model, according to Yu. Wahida, both are present.
The essence of the proposed Strategy Vahidom model is that modern Islamic education is built on the following ideological foundation.
First, it is based on three interrelated concepts: "tarbiya "(education), " taalim "(training), "taadib" (correction, correction).
All three concepts are also included in other interpretations of Islamic education, but they are interpreted differently.15 Some interpretations of these concepts meet with a critical response from opponents.16
Secondly, it is based on" minimalist "and" maximalist " approaches to assessing the state of mind of graduates of Muslim educational institutions, which in principle allows for a critical nature of their thinking in relation to the surrounding social and political environment.
Third, it is based on the basic concepts of Islamic education that make up its goal - " truth "(khakk) and "justice" (adl)17.
Minimalists and maximalists, according to Yu. According to Vahid, they allow for a different scale of application of these basic concepts in relation to the modern world. Maximalists believe that these concepts are universal, i.e. they cover the whole world. Minimalists, on the other hand, allow a local view of the application of these concepts within only certain ethnic, cultural, political and, of course, religious groups of the population.18
Vahid suggests considering the Islamic educational process in the context of a" democratic association " - the Ummah, within which the principles of ta'dib (adjustment) based on making rational judgments - ijtihad are applicable. All of this, taken together, equips Islamic educational theory and practice with immunity from extremism.
Referring to the works of the famous German philosopher and sociologist Jurgen Habermas, Youssef Wahid examines the role of majority and minority opinion in the democratic process.
The decision-making majority, according to Habermas, is not at all a criterion of what is better or worse. The reasonableness of the majority decision is based on two principles. First, a political decision must be made by a majority. Second, a minority can seek to influence the majority's opinion and even correct it based on making rational judgments.
Yu. Wahid identifies the development of these rational judgments with the Islamic practice of applying the principle of ijtihad. It is the democratic process that makes it possible for the majority to take into account the opinion of the minority when making decisions. Mutual recognition of the interests of the majority and the minority in the process of developing rational decisions.
According to Habermas, making decisions is one of the main values of the democratic process.19
Agreeing with this, Y. Vahid asserts that for social development, along with training (taalim), adjustment (taadib) plays an important role. Adjustment in its Islamic meaning is closely linked to the idea of individual responsibility to God, to oneself, and to others in a society built on the basis of justice. A person who uses democratic procedures for self-serving purposes cannot be considered a cultured person - a person of adab.
The principle of ikhtilaf - "disagreement, dissent" - is an important element in the expression of alternative points of view within the Islamic community. Wahid views the right to dissent as a legitimate right that cannot be denied to a person. As a historical argument in favor of this point of view, the example of Caliph Ali is given, who showed patience with dissenters until they switched from peaceful forms of expression to violent ones, which made them illegal. 20
Justice in decision-making within the Arab democratic community-the Ummah-can be ensured by applying the principle of shura (deliberativeness) - collective decision-making based on consultations (not alone). At the same time, the Shura principle means creating a group of people who are ready to listen to the opinion of others, even if it differs from their own opinion.
In the process of reasoning Yu. Wahid confirms the conclusion that it is necessary to distinguish two poles in Islamic educational theory - maximalist and minimalist-as necessary tools for analysis. The unifying category is " Islamic civilization "(hadara islamiia), which is closely related to the idea of an "Islamic state" (daula islamiia).
This, in turn, is not only an abstraction, but also a very specific name of the Islamic State (IS) political organization, which until recently had a continuation."..Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL).
The mention of this organization introduces a certain dissonance in the context of the above arguments, but the section "Jihad and dichotomous understandings of Islamic education" introduced by Wahid in his research justifies the association. The fact is that Yu. Wahid admits the possibility of applying the concept of jihad to education. At the same time, he emphasizes that jihad is not only an armed struggle against those who threaten the security of Muslims and their personal interests. On the contrary, Youssef Wahid emphasizes that there can only be "peaceful jihad" in the field of education, that is, intensive work to preserve Islamic education as a separate segment of global culture is a phenomenal phenomenon.
ISLAMIC EDUCATIONAL JIHAD
Starting to discuss the concept of "jihad" and its role in understanding Islamic education, Vahid refers to an article by two contemporary Iranian researchers: Khosrow Baqeri and Zohreh Khosraoui.
The minimalist approach to Islamic education is associated with an undoctrinal understanding of Islam and "blind imitation", while the maximalist approach is characterized by autonomous thinking, rationalism, and activity. Wahid suggests considering the doctrine of jihad in relation to education also from two perspectives - maximalist and minimalist. From this point of view, jihad can be interpreted, on the one hand, as an armed war for faith, and on the other - as a desire for moral self-improvement. It is obvious that in the first sense we are dealing with religious extremism, and in the second-with spiritual improvement.
Jihad is a tool for achieving justice on earth, because it gives a Muslim the right to protect himself from injustice and danger to life, freedom, dignity, and in accordance with the maximalist approach, Islamic education extends these principles to all of humanity, which needs justice. Wahid refers to the works of a number of authors who have studied the topic of jihad, 21 trying to interpret the principles of jihad from the standpoint of moderation and spiritual improvement of the individual, making armed forms of jihad dependent on the will of a free individual.
The fact is that along with scientific tasks, the author of the book sets a political goal-to prove the groundlessness of the claim that Islamic extremists predominate among graduates of Islamic educational institutions and that this is a direct consequence of their education.
The religious ideological justification of a number of extremist trends in the Islamic political movement, such as ISIL and the Islamic State derived from it, cannot be denied, but it is hardly fair to assign responsibility for this exclusively to Muslim education, Youssef Wahid believes.
He emphasizes that the system of Islamic education has a humanistic orientation and is based on principles that can be defined as "cosmopolitan", while Islamic extremism has mainly local forms, relies on local political interests, seeks political power in a particular country and therefore has little in common with the phenomenon of Islamic education. The goal of Islamic education is to bring up a good person, i.e. a " cultured person "(a person of adab), who is the opposite of an extremist fanatic.
This point of view of Youssef Wahid deserves attention, since it has an obvious positive meaning for the global spiritual climate, but, in fact, it is not always confirmed by real political practice. Moreover, for more than a decade now, the education sector in the global world has been a global challenge.-
This is a highly competitive environment, where events are no less dramatic than on the warfields.
An example of the fact that the rejection of Western educational standards resulting from the Islamic version of the formation of a compartmentalized mind ("separate thinking") has a direct impact on political processes in the modern world is provided by the ideology and practice of a number of modern Islamic political movements, such as the Taliban (Afghanistan), Boko Haram, orThe Black Taliban (active in Nigeria, as well as in Cameroon, Niger, and Chad), the Islamic State (mainly in Syria and Iraq), and a number of others.
BOKO HARAM - "WESTERN EDUCATION IS A SIN"
A typical example of jihad in the field of education, and in practice - jihad in its various manifestations, including armed ones, is provided by the ideology and practice of the Boko Haram organization.
In 2002, in the Nigerian city of Maiduguri, the spiritual leader of the Nigerian jihadists, Muhammad Yusuf, built a small religious complex that included a mosque and a madrasa. At the same time, the creation of the "Society of Sunnah Adherents for the Call to Jihad" (Jammatu ahli-s-sunnah li daawati wa-l-jihad)was proclaimed The official goal of the organization was to teach children Islamic sciences in order to counterbalance the influence of the values of secular (Western) education on their minds.
Then and later, for example, in 2009, in a well-known interview with the British BBC TV channel, Muhammad Yusuf identified the main goal of the Society as the struggle to purge Islamic education of false ideas, for example, such as Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species. "Many prominent Muslim preachers have already seen and understood that modern Western-style education includes aspects that run counter to our faith in Islam." 22
It was from this interview that the world learned the remarkable aphorism of M. Yusuf: "We believe that rain is rather the creation of Allah than the result of the process of evaporation and condensation caused by the Sun."
M. Yusuf formulated the trinity of tasks of the movement headed by him as follows: "Overthrowing the existing political regime in Nigeria and replacing it with a state model like the caliphate; introduction of Islamic legal norms in the country; prohibition of everything that falls under the definition of"Western type of education".
The organization founded by M. Yusuf is also known as "Boko Haram" - literally "Western Education is a sin", which speaks for itself*.
Journalists called Yusuf an enigma person because, while preaching anti-Western values, he was well-educated according to modern Western criteria, spoke fluent English, moved around in a Mercedes and, in general, led a "luxurious lifestyle" (he lives lavishly). Muhammad Yusuf was killed in the police station (according to the official version, "while trying to escape") In July 2009, after his organization conducted several anti-government military operations in northern Nigeria. In total, about 700 Boko Haram militants were killed.
The new leader of the organization revived after the defeat was Imam Abu Bakr Shekau , a man of traditional Islamic upbringing and education, a graduate of the Borno State College of Legal and Islamic Studies in Maiduguri. He is called the "face of terror" because his video messages usually accompany major terrorist attacks of the organization he leads.
One of the most high-profile crimes was the abduction of 270 local girls taken hostage by Boko Haram on April 14, 2014. The condition for their release was the requirement to release militants of the Islamic movement from prisons. 57 girls were subsequently released, but more than 200 continued to be held in captivity. In one of the video messages, Shekau said that he did not see anything reprehensible in "selling women", hinting at a possible sad prospect for the hostages.
Imam Abu Bakr Shekau speaks four languages, but at the same time does not know English at all, adheres to extreme anti-Western views in the field of education and culture, is committed to armed jihad, leads an illegal lifestyle, communicates with like-minded people only through trusted persons. Although his face is known to everyone in Nigeria, neither his location, nor the circle of his closest associates, nor even the exact age of this person is known.
According to the US State Department, the year of his birth may be 1965, 1969, 197523. During the five years of armed struggle for the creation of the Islamic State, Boko Haram militants have killed thousands of people and taken hundreds of local residents hostage. In early January 2015, as a result of a military operation, extremist forces seized the military base and headquarters of the African multinational force in Baga, and almost leveled 16 settlements in north-eastern Nigeria. The Nigerian authorities and army are showing an inability to deal with the extremists.
Jihad to" Western values"," educational jihad " has been declared and is gaining momentum. Education is given serious attention in the territories controlled by the "Islamic State" (IS) in Syria, and especially in Iraq. Among the latest publications in the popular science magazine of Mosul is an article devoted to the values of Islamic culture and education and the impossibility of finding a compromise with Western information institutions that take openly anti-Islamic positions. Similar information about the activation of Islamic educational projects based on anti-Western principles
* "Boko" - literally means" false "in the Hausa language, and is used figuratively as a synonym for "modern Western-style education". Haram is an Arabic word meaning "something illegal", "sinful", "forbidden" or simply "sin" (author's note).
It also comes from areas controlled by the Taliban in Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan.
Against this political background, the prospects for compromise, especially constructive interaction of the values of the Western model of education with the values of Islamic education, become an urgent political task.
The above facts and arguments allow us to draw the following conclusions:
- Islamic education has the characteristics of a global phenomenon, since it has an obvious consistency, which has its own multi-level and internally differentiated "intentional structure", aimed at universalization and maximum spatial expansion of the Islamic educational process;
- the phenomenon of Islamic education arises on the basis of the concept of "Islamic tradition", which is connected with the concept of" Islamic civilization", the existence of which, in turn, depends on the development of the corresponding model of education, which currently has a developed conceptual justification. One of the latest constructive examples of such justification is the concept of Youssef Wahid;
- within the boundaries of the Islamic cultural space, Islamic geocultural universalism, based on the ideological foundation of "cosmopolitanization of Islamic education", is becoming increasingly important. In the context of KIE, the coordination of Islamic educational activities on a global scale is an urgent task, which is solved using the concept of "educational jihad";
- the political future of the world depends on the results of today's teaching work. The content of Islamic education influences current and prospective political processes. Youssef Wahid and his associates insist that Islamic education should not and cannot serve the purposes of religious and political extremism.
* * *
Islamic education, regardless of its content, is a global phenomenon. It would be incorrect to ignore it as a phenomenon of a global cultural process. In essence, we are talking about challenging the "Western" model of education to open competition (in Islamic terminology, they speak of "non-military jihad").
It is proposed to compete all over the world, since Islamic education exists almost everywhere: first of all, in the countries that are members of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (which includes 7 member states and 5 countries with observer status, including Russia). Elements of Islamic education are present in almost all other countries where there is at least one Friday mosque.
"Educational jihad," which until recently was hard to imagine, now seems to be becoming a political reality. Thanks to studies such as the work of Youssef Wahid, the threat of a" holy war " within the educational space is mitigated by the call for global cooperation, which is shared by everyone who really cares about the state of the spiritual climate on our planet.
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